Monday, 12 March 2018

Intake of Roasted Bean Coffee Beverage Daily(1) to Discover 11/77 Impressive Health Benefits Thar You Might Not Know

Coffee, emerging as a popular and social beverage all over the world, particular in the West, is a drink made from roast bean from the Coffea plant, native to tropical Africa and Madagascar.

Recent studies suggested that coffee may process various health benefits through

1. Weight Loss and Weight Management
Coffee, a popular drink may be an excellent beverage for induced weight loss and weight management, some scientists revealed.

Weight loss is an intentional reduction of the total body mass, according to the definition stated by medicine, health, or physical fitness experts.

According to the University of Exeter, in the reviewed data from human clinical trials, differentiated 8 eligible trials, green coffee extract (GCE) have moderated or significant effect in reduced weight loss in compared to placebo.

In rat model, 48t rats fed with either a control diet with water (C) or a control diet with a coffee solution (CF). At the end of week 4, animals in each dietary group were subdivided into three exercise groups: before exercise (BE), during exercise (DE), and after exercise (AE), group fed with coffee solution showed a significant in reduced total weight compared diet with water group.

The efficacy of dietary coffee in decreased total weight loss may be attributed to the extract function in stimulated the production of antioxidant in suppressed free radical expression. as well as increasing total cholesterol.

Dr. Choi EY the lead author said,"freeze-dried instant coffee can promote activities of antioxidant enzymes and induce weight loss but also aggravate the plasma cholesterol profile in rats".

In the compared the daily consumption of coffee and caffeinated beverages between 494 weight loss maintainers and 2129 individuals from the general population, consumed significantly more cups of coffee are found in the weight loss maintainers than the general population group.

Other researchers insisted that the efficacy of coffee in induced weight loss, probably due to activities of caffeine and other chemical constituents of coffee, such as chlorogenic acid and quinides.

Collective findings suggested that coffee may have a potentially therapeutic property in weight deduction. But some reviewed trials were associated with a high risk of bias. poor methodological quality, therefor, more studies are necessary to confirm the promising validity, some researchers suggested.

2. Type II Diabetes
Good news for coffee lover, your risk of diabetes is significant reduced in compared to non coffee drinking population, a respectable researcher indicated.

Diabetes is a medical condition characterized by insufficient insulin entering the bloodstream to regulate the glucose, either caused by cells in pancreas dying off or receptor sites clogged up by fat and cholesterol. In some cases, diabetes is also caused by allergic reactions of cells in the immune system.

In the reviewed literature of 20 prospective studies with 1,109,272 study participants and 45,335 cases of type 2 diabetes included in the analysis with follow-up duration ranged from 10 months to 20 years, coffee intake is inversely associated to risk of type 2 diabetes.

Compared with no or rare coffee consumption, the range of relative risk (RR; 95% CI) for diabetes significant lower in all studies was 0.92, 0.85 0.75, 0.71, 0.67 respectively for people who have 1-6 cups/day in all reviewed studies.

Both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee showed an insignificant difference in relative risk but inversely diabetic development in a dose-response manner.

According to the Zhejiang University, coffee consumption reduced risk of type II diabetes may involve expression on different mechanistic factors, inclding glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, insulin resistance, glucose-6-phosphatase, intestinal glucose absorption, antioxidant activity, inflammatory biomarkers, nuclear factor-κB inhibition, glucose uptake, glucose homeostasis, glucose metabolism, and insulin secretion.

Dr. Akash MS, the head researcher saids, " the experimental and epidemiologic evidences presented here elucidate the protective effects of coffee consumption on T2DM, involving multiple preventive mechanisms".

Other, in the analysis of risk of autoimmune diabetes with coffee intake in adults, proposed that although consumption of coffee showed an inverse association with type II diabetes through improving the production of high glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody, the general trend was weak.

Risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults is reduced even further with additional cup of coffee per day. the study also indicated.

3. Cardiovascular Disease
Coffee consumers may have one less risk to worry about. A recent study suggested that long term and moderate coffee consumption is inversely associated with CVD risk.

Cardiovascular disease is a medical condition characterized by heart attack, chest pain (angina) or stroke caused by narrow blood vessels induced block blood.

In the review of literature existed from the data base involved prospective cohort studies of the relationship between coffee consumption and CVD risk, 36 satisfied the guidelines included studies, with 1 279 804 participants and 36 352 CVD cases, coffee drinkers have a nonlinear association to risk of CVD, depending to numbers of cup intake per day.

According to the joint study lead by the Harvard School of Public Health, the relative risk of cardiovascular disease in coffee consumption was .95 in compared with the 0 cup of coffee consumption per day.

Dr. Ding M, the lead author in the review said, "oderate coffee consumption was inversely significantly associated with CVD risk, with the lowest CVD risk at 3 to 5 cups per day, and heavy coffee consumption was not associated with elevated CVD risk".

Long term moderate coffee consumptions not only reduced risk of heart disease, but also ameliorated other conditions associated with CV risk factors such as obesity and depression. However, the affect of caffeine in lipid file may associate to endothelial function in increased CVD risk, depending to how the coffee is prepared.

More importantly, epidemiological studies also suggest that risks of mortality in both CV and all-causes are substantially attenuated in regular coffee drinkers.

Other researchers insisted that the health benefits of coffee consumption regarding cardiovascular system risk, mostly depend on its antioxidant compounds involved many factors, such as variety of coffee species, roasting degree, type of brewing method and serving size.

4. Edema
Good news for coffee drinkers, coffee may have a potential effect in reduced risk and treatment of edema, a recent study suggested.

Edema is a condition characterized by excess fluid retained in body's tissues, inducing swelling.

According to the joint study lead by the Kyung Hee University, chlorogenic acid (CGA) isolated from coffee exerted protective effects of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) rat model in ameliorated brain infarct volume and brain water content.

Chlorogenic acid (CGA) found abundantly in roasted coffee through expression of ester of caffeic acidand (−)-quinic acid, is an powerful antioxidant with profound effect in induced weight loss and edema.

Middle cerebral artery is a carotid artery supplied blood to the brain region involved the primary motor and sensory areas of the face, throat, hand and arm, and in the dominant hemisphere, the areas for speech.

The protective effect in reduced on ischemia-induced neuronal damage and brain attributed to dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA), formed in metabolism of CGA in inhibited enzymes involved in the degradation of the extracellular matrix, namely MMP2 and MMP-9. in providing structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.

Dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA) is a metabolite of caffeic acid with potent antioxidant properties.
Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9, (MMP-2 - 9) are enzymes with function in activated extracellular matrix (ECM), a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by cells to support the structure of cell. Over expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 are found to associate to increased risk of disease progression, including arthritis and cancers.

In a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, CGA directly showed a significantly reduced brain water content, by the inhibitory effects on MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities.

The study also addressed that the attenuation of brain edema may also be resulted by the chemical compound's anti lipid peroxidation (LPO) activity through increased antioxidant expression.

Lipid peroxidation (LPO) is a free radical-related process occurred under enzymatic control, through the activity of oxidative degradation of lipids.

Other study in the investigation of anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan, PGE(2) and serotonin-induced hind paw edema and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse ear edema models, chlorogenic acid (CGA), also exerted a significant anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity against serotonin-induced hind paw edema and TPA-induced mouse ear edema, researchers at the Gazi University postulated.
Carrageenan is a mixture of polysaccharides extracted from red and purple seaweeds.

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a conventional medicine used for treatment of pain and inflammation in numbers of disease, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate is one of chemical compound used in experiment to induce endogenous superoxide production. In other word, it is a chemical used routinely in enhanced free radical expression for researcher in animal models.

Finally, researchers in the concerns of the caffeine in reduced risk of edema strongly insisted that injection of caffeine induced diminution in the amount of edema in the body cavities was a result of an inhibition of the production of edema and not to an increased absorption of fluid from the serous body cavities.

5. Chronic and Recurrent Gout
Good News for coffee lovers, coffee consumption daily is associated to reduced risk and treatment of
chronic and recurrent gout, some institute studies proposed.

Gout mostly effected one joint, is an acute and recurrent condition of arthritis as a result of uric acid building up in blood, inducing joint inflammation.

According to the joint study lead by the Central South University, in the review literature of PubMed and EMBASE databases, up to April 2015, out of total of 11 observational studies (6 cross-sectional, 3 cohort and 2 case-control studies), coffee consumption showed a significantly inverse association with incidence of gout.

The study also found out that the efficacy of coffee consumption in reduced risk of gout showed no significant difference between the highest and the lowest coffee intake in terms of serum uric acid (SUA) level.

Uric acid, a normal product in the metabolic breakdown of purine may have a major effects in induced gout expression if secreted in high dose.
According to general belief, high blood concentrations of uric acid can lead to gout development and numbers of medical conditions including diabetes and the formation of kidney stones.

In the total of 45,869 men with no history of gout at baseline with intake of coffee, decaffeinated coffee, tea, and total caffeine evaluated in every 4 years, participants in returned questionnaires indicated that increasing coffee intake was (1-3, 4-5, and > or = 6 cups per day) inversely associated with thvee risk of gout depending to numbers of cups consumed daily.

Caffeine, a chemical stimulant found abundantly in caffeinated products, such as tea and coffee is a class of methylxanthine having an impact in central nervous system (CNS), depending to volumes of intake.

The relative risk of gout incidence in coffee drinkers is as low as .41 in compared to non coffee consumed participants.

Most importantly, the total caffeine levels from all sources, including coffee and tea intake showed no associated risk of gout.

Other researchers, in the finding of gout developed, suggested that coffee intake of 4 to 5 and >/=6 cups daily lower risk of gout in compared to no intake (0.26 mg/dl and and 0.43 mg/dl respectively) and total caffeine from coffee and other beverages and tea intake were not associated with serum uric acid levels.

Also, according to the data from 14,758 participants ages >/=20 years in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), coffee consumption is associated to ameliorated serum uric acid level and hyperuricemia frequency.

Hyperuricemia is excess of uric acid in the blood stream passing through from liver. Normally, uric acid is excreted during intestinal process.

According to Dr. Davide Grassi, the lead author in the study of Chronic Hyperuricemia, Uric Acid Deposit and Cardiovascular Risk, said "Hyperuricemia is commonly associated with traditional risk factors such as dysglicemia, dyslipidemia, central obesity and abnormal blood pressure, i.e. the metabolic syndrome."

The effects of coffee in reduced risk gout may be attributed to the presence of coffee components of chlorogenic acid and antioxidants activities in reduce blood levels of insulin which have been found to associated linearly to levels of uric acid. In other words, insulin levels are low, uric acid tends to be lower, too.

6. Parkinson's diseases
Intake of coffee caffeine regularly are associated to a significantly attenuated risk of neurodegenerative conditions, particular in the onset of Parkinson's diseases, a recent study suggested.

Parkinson's disease is neuro degenerative disease caused by deficiency of the dopamine and.degeneration of the basal ganglia of the brain, affecting muscular normal function.

Dopamine acted as as a neurotransmitter and a precursor of other substances including epinephrine.
is a compound present in the body involved brain function in the roles of reward-motivated behavior.

The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) having a strong interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and brainstem, as well as several other brain areas, is a group of subcortical neurons, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates with function involved primarily processing movement related information such as emotions, motivations, and cognitive functions.

Coffee, becoming a popular and social beverage all over the world, particularly in the West, is a drink made from roasted bean from the Coffea plant, native to tropical Africa and Madagascar.

According to the Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, in compared population comprised 47,351 men and 88,565 women free of Parkinson's disease, stroke, or cancer at baseline, caffeine intake is associated to reduced risk and progression of PD, in compared the top and bottom one-fifth men participants. No effect is found for decaffeinate coffee intake regardless to numbers of cup consumed.

Caffeine, a chemical stimulant found abundantly in caffeinated products, including tea and coffee is a class of methylxanthine having a profound impact in central nervous system (CNS).

Interestingly, among women, numbers of caffeinated coffee intake daily have a strong implication in attenuated risk of PD linearly, in compared to lowest intake of moderated intake groups.

Further more, a case-control study conducted in western Washington State in 1992-2000. Incident PD cases (n = 210) and controls (n = 347) with frequency matched on gender and age identified from enrollees of the Group Health Cooperative health maintenance organization, returned questionnaires by participants indicated, consumption of 2 cups/day showed a strong expression in reduced risk of PD.

More importantly, in the review of twenty-six studies included: 7 cohort, 2 nested case-control, 16 case-control, and 1 cross-sectional study, the total relative odd ratio for the association between caffeine intake in low to moderate groups and PD was 0.75.

But, in cohort studies, reduced risk of PD significantly decreased if only women participants were considered.

Researchers, at above study revealed that PD risk is associated to a linear relation between levels of caffeine exposure of relative odd ratio of 0.76, per 300 mg caffeine intake.

Finally, some researchers addressed that, in the concerns of PD patients in expression a significant impairment of dopaminergic neuron transmission, caffeine acted as acts as a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist may have a profound effect in treatment of PD through adenosine A2A receptors function in regulation of glutamate and dopamine release.

7. Ameliorated Level of Uric Acid
Good News for coffee lovers, intake of coffee is associated to ameliorated level of uric acid, a marker of gout incidence, a renowned institute study suggested.

But intake foods with high amount of purines may cause an excess of uric acid in your blood.

According to the observation of data from 14,758 participants ages >/=20 years in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), decreased serum uric acid level is associated to increased coffee intake.
Serum uric acid level was significant lower with coffee intake of 4 to 5 and >/=6 cups daily in compared to non drinkers.

The study also indicated that serum uric acid was not effected by total caffeine from coffee and other beverages.

Additionally, researchers in the review of data base of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, and KoreaMed for all articles published before January 2015, 9 studies published between 1999 and 2014, containing a total of 175,310 subjects, demonstrated that coffee has a significantly lowering effect on serum UA.

And Amount of coffee required to lower serum UA is different in gender. Women are required to consumse more cups of coffee (4-6 cups/day) in compared to their male counterpart (1-3 cups/day) to exhibited same effects.

Significantly, incidence of gout was even reduced linearly in participants with intake of 1 cup/day or more with no different in both genders.

Promisingly, in a total of 11.662 men and women aged 49-76 years, excluding those with medication for gout and hyperuricemia, use of diuretic drugs, and medical care for cancer or chronic kidney disease, daily consumption of coffee has a significantly inverse associations with serum UA concentrations in men.

But in compared to women participants, male participants expressed a statistically significant elevation of inverse association between coffee and serum UA levels.

6. Basal cell carcinoma 
Coffee caffeine consumption regularly is associated to ameliorated risk of basal cell carcinoma of the skin, the Queensland Institute of Medical Research study suggested.

Basal cell cancer is the most common type of skin cancer characterized by abnormal growth of the cells in the lowest layer of the epidermis. The cancer rarely spread and kill but can cause significant destruction and disfigurement to the affected skin area and accounted for more than 90% of all skin cancer in the U.S.

In the study among 1,325 randomly selected adult residents of a subtropical Australian community collected in 1992, 1994, and 1996, returned food frequency questionnaires from participants showed a significantly lower relative risk in people with with prior skin cancers by 25% with daily consumption of four cups of regular coffee.

For people without previous history of skin disease, consumption of neither caffeinated nor decaffeinated coffee regardless of amount intake expressed no risk of basal cell carcinoma of the skin.

Dr. Miura K, the lead author said, " Among people with prior skin cancers, a relatively high caffeine intake may help prevent subsequent BCC development. However, caffeine intake appears not to influence the risk of SCC."

Also, in the evaluation of the effects of tea, coffee, and caffeine related to early-onset BCC from data of 767 non-Hispanic Whites under age 40 in Connecticut. BCC cases (n=377) identified through Yale's Dermatopathology database and controls (n=390) of individuals in the same database, participants interview revealed combined regular consumption of caffeinated coffee plus hot tea expressed a strong inverse association of early-onset BCC.

According to the analysis, risk of BCC was reduced by as much as 43% in this group in compared to non drinking group.

Researchers at the study also indicated that the efficacy in reduced risk of basal cell carcinoma of the skin from these 2 beverages may be attributed to chemical component of caffeine.

In the support of caffeine administration in prevented squamous cells skin cancer development, the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, postulated the following results.
* Caffeine intake from all dietary sources was inversely associated with BCC risk even people who only consumed less than 1 cup of caffeinated coffee per month.

* Women who consumed more than 3 cups/d had the relative odd risk ratio of 0.79, in compared to 0.90 in men with the same cups intake.

* Decaffeinated coffee consumption showed no association in decreased BCC risk.

9. Protect Cognition and Behavior Function of Fetus
Epidemiological studies do not agree that coffee and coffee caffeine intake during pregnancy may have a negative impact in child cognition and behavior.

Caffeine, a chemical stimulant found abundantly in caffeinated products, including tea and coffee is a class of methylxanthine having a profound impact in central nervous system (CNS).

Cognition and Behavior is a group of neuro function involving sensation and perception, learning and memory, attention, mental imagery, conceptual presentation, language expression, emotion response, motor control,.....

In the study of examine maternal serum paraxanthine at <20 and ≥26 weeks' gestation with the child's intelligence quotient (IQ) and problem behaviors at ages 4 and 7 years among 2,197 mother-child pairs, researchers showed that paraxanthine, a structurally related to caffeine.and caffeine's primary metabolite concentration has a significantly inverted effect at ≥26 weeks' gestation with child's IQ at age 7 years.

And at <20 weeks, paraxanthine also expressed a linearly associated with internalizing behavior at age 4 years.

Paraxanthine is a caffeine metabolite and central nervous system (CNS) stimulant processed a similar potency equal to that of caffeine.

After taking into account of over a range of values applicable to most pregnant women, researchers indicated that coffee caffeine in contribution to serum paraxanthine concentration showed no significant effect in association with childhood IQ or problem behaviors.

Contrast to the healthy mothers, women's reported coffee intake per day during pregnancy was associated with lower child's behavior rating scale (BRS), a complete overview of child and adolescent concerns and disorders, ratings in anemic children. Even with inclusion of other contributing factors and after anemic children given appropriated treatment, coffee consumption continuously showed a poor child cognition and behavior.

The Behavior Rating Scale (BRS) is an assessment frequently used by experts in assessment of the development of child cognition and behavior in infants and children, including autism.

Dr.Engle PL, the lead author said, " The effects of postnatal coffee ingestion in Guatemala were seen for sleep duration, but not for cognitive development. Prenatal coffee ingestion was negatively associated with behavior rating scales". 

10. Prostate Cancer
Good news for men coffee lovers, coffee and coffee caffeine consumption daily and regularly are associated to attenuated risk and treatment of prostate cancer, epidemiological study suggested.

Prostate Cancer is a medical condition characterized by cell growth disorderable and uncontrollable in the prostate.

In the study of the efficacy of coffee intake and risk of prostate cancer (PC-3 and DU145) on 6,989 men of the Moli-sani cohort aged ≥50 years showed that
* Risk of prostate cancer reduced by 53% in people drinking over>3 cups/day in compared to participants at the lowest consumption (0-2 cups/day)

* Injection of caffeine in both cancer cell lines PC-3 and DU145 showed a substantial activity in reduction of proliferative and metastatic behaviors.

Caffeine demonstration exerted significantly anti proliferative and anti metastatic activity on two prostate cancer cell lines, may be attributed to its bioactive compounds in expression of anti cancer in various mechanisms.
Other, in the selection of twenty-eight studies (14 case-control and 14 cohort studies) on coffee caffeine (CC) with 42399 PC patients for the final meta-analysis searched from data bases of Pubmed and Embase, researchers, filed the following results
* There was no significant association of prostate cancer in regard to high versus non/lowestCC intake.
* Coffee and coffee caffeine intake showed a localized effect in subtype of prostate cancer but not advanced prostate cancer.

These result showed a significant effect of coffee in reduced risk of early stage of prostate cancer and coffee do not associate to risk of prostate cancer.

More profoundly in the report of a prospective analysis of 47,911 men with intake of regular and decaffeinated coffee in 1986 and every 4 years thereafter in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study
* Men, drinking six or more cups per day had a lowest relative risk for overall prostate cancer in compared to nondrinkers.

* Over all, Coffee consumption was not associated with the risk of nonadvanced or low-grade prostate cancers and was only weakly inversely associated with high-grade prostate cancer

* There was no different effect of regular and decaffeinated coffee in ameliorated risk of prostate cancer.

11. Improved Complexity of Cognitive Performance in Older Adults
Epidemiological studies do not agreed that regular coffee consumption may associate to improve cognitive function, a joint study lead by the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais suggested.

Cognitive function is a cerebral activities in acquired knowledge, including all means and mechanisms of acquiring information.

In a cohort of 14,563 public service workers (35-74 years old) to examine the coffee consumption habits and cognitive function using standardized neuropsychological test, researchers at the above institutes filed the following results
* Elderly drinking 2-3 cups/day, showed a significant improvement in the mean words remembered on learning, recall, and word recognition in compared to never/almost never groups.

* And those drinking more than 3 cups a day exhibited an increased mean words pronounced, according to the semantic verbal fluency test in compared to the same groups.

Dr. Araújo LF, the lead author said, "coffee consumption might be slightly beneficial to memory in elderly but lacks a dose response relationship".

Further more, in 2,914 participants from the population-based Rotterdam Study (mean age: 59.3±7.2 years, 55% females) to assess coffee consumption, performed brain MRI, and cognition at baseline, researchers found that
* Higher coffee consumption showed a lower prevalence of lacunar infarcts [odds ratio per cup increase: 0.88 (95% CI:0.79;0.98)]involved development of stroke, and smaller hippocampal volume in expression of memory ability.
* Coffee consumption promoted better performance on the Letter Digit Substitution Task
* But do not improved on the 15-Word Learning test delayed recall.

Dr. Araújo LF, again said, "...(there is a) complex associations between coffee consumption, brain structure, and cognition. Higher coffee consumption was cross-sectionally associated with a lower occurrence of lacunar infarcts and better executive function.

Interestingly, according to the study of coffee consumption and other baseline variables of 2606 middle-aged Finnish twins assessed in 1975 and 1981 by postal questionnaires, with after the median follow-up of 28 y, coffee consumption was not an independent predictor of cognitive performance in old age, according to the linear regression analysis.

The study also insisted that coffee drinking did not affect the risk of mild cognitive impairment or dementia, but expressed an inconsistent cognitive score.

Taking altogether, coffee and coffee caffeine may be considered as a function beverage for improvement of  numbers of health benefit far more than those mentioned through its antioxidant properties and caffeine contents. Finally, if you are coffee lovers, as always, we recommended that you do not add sugar and high-fat dairy creams in your drinks.

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Permanently Eliminate All Types of Ovarian Cysts Within 2 Months

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Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrients

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


(1) The use of green coffee extract as a weight loss supplement: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials by Onakpoya I1, Terry R, Ernst E.(PubMed)
(2) Caffeine intake is related to successful weight loss maintenance by Icken D1, Feller S2, Engeli S3, Mayr A4, Müller A1, Hilbert A5, de Zwaan M1.(PubMed)
(3) Freeze-dried instant coffee can promote the activities of antioxidant enzymes and induce weight loss but also aggravate the plasma cholesterol profile in rats byChoi EY1, Park SY, Cho YO.(PubMed)
(4) Coffee, diabetes, and weight control by Greenberg JA1, Boozer CN, Geliebter A.(PubMed)
(5) Caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and a dose-response meta-analysis by Ding M1, Bhupathiraju SN, Chen M, van Dam RM, Hu FB.(PubMed)
(6) Effects of coffee on type 2 diabetes mellitus by Akash MS1, Rehman K2, Chen S3.(PubMed)
(7) Coffee consumption and the risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults--results from a Swedish case-control study by Löfvenborg JE1, Andersson T, Carlsson PO, Dorkhan M, Groop L, Martinell M, Rasouli B, Storm P, Tuomi T, Carlsson S.(PubMed)
(8) Long-term coffee consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies by Ding M1, Bhupathiraju SN, Satija A, van Dam RM, Hu FB.(PubMed)
(9) Effects of habitual coffee consumption on cardiometabolic disease, cardiovascular health, and all-cause mortality by O'Keefe JH1, Bhatti SK, Patil HR, DiNicolantonio JJ, Lucan SC, Lavie CJ.(PubMed)
(10) Protective Effects of Dihydrocaffeic Acid, a Coffee Component Metabolite, on a Focal Cerebral Ischemia Rat Model by Lee K1, Lee BJ2, Bu Y3.(PubMed)
(11) Chlorogenic acid ameliorates brain damage and edema by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9 in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia by Lee K1, Lee JS, Jang HJ, Kim SM, Chang MS, Park SH, Kim KS, Bae J, Park JW, Lee B, Choi HY, Jeong CH, Bu Y.(PubMed)
(12) Ethnopharmacological evaluation of some Scorzonera species: in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects by Küpeli Akkol E1, Bahadır Acıkara O, Süntar I, Ergene B, Saltan Çitoğlu G.(PubMed)
(14) Is coffee consumption associated with a lower risk of hyperuricaemia or gout? A systematic review and meta-analysis by Zhang Y1, Yang T1, Zeng C1, Wei J2, Li H1, Xiong YL1, Yang Y1, Ding X1, Lei G1.(PubMed)
(15) Coffee consumption and risk of incident gout in men: a prospective study by Choi HK1, Willett W, Curhan G.(PubMed)
(16) Coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption and serum uric acid level: the third national health and nutrition examination survey by Choi HK1, Curhan G.(PubMed)
(17) Can coffee consumption lower the risk of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease? A literature review by Wierzejska R1.(PubMed)
(18) Prospective study of caffeine consumption and risk of Parkinson's disease in men and women by Ascherio A1, Zhang SM, Hernán MA, Kawachi I, Colditz GA, Speizer FE, Willett WC.(PubMed)
(19) Parkinson's disease risks associated with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and caffeine intake by Checkoway H1, Powers K, Smith-Weller T, Franklin GM, Longstreth WT Jr, Swanson PD.(PubMed)
(20) Association of coffee and caffeine intake with the risk of Parkinson disease by Ross GW1, Abbott RD, Petrovitch H, Morens DM, Grandinetti A, Tung KH, Tanner CM, Masaki KH, Blanchette PL, Curb JD, Popper JS, White LR.(PubMed)
(21) Coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption and serum uric acid level: the third national health and nutrition examination survey by Choi HK1, Curhan G.(PubMed)
(22) Effects of coffee consumption on serum uric acid: systematic review and meta-analysis by Park KY1, Kim HJ2, Ahn HS2, Kim SH1, Park EJ1, Yim SY3, Jun JB4.(PubMed)
(23) The relation of coffee consumption to serum uric Acid in Japanese men and women aged 49-76 years by Pham NM1, Yoshida D, Morita M, Yin G, Toyomura K, Ohnaka K, Takayanagi R, Kono S.(PubMed)
(24) Caffeine intake and risk of basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin in an 11-year prospective study by Miura K1, Hughes MC, Green AC, van der Pols JC.(PubMed)
(25) Tea, coffee, and caffeine and early-onset basal cell carcinoma in a case-control study by Ferrucci LM1, Cartmel B, Molinaro AM, Leffell DJ, Bale AE, Mayne ST.(PubMed)
(26) Increased caffeine intake is associated with reduced risk of basal cell carcinoma of the skin by Song F1, Qureshi AA, Han J.(PubMed)
(27) Maternal Caffeine Intake During Pregnancy and Child Cognition and Behavior at 4 and 7 Years of Age by Klebanoff MA, Keim SA.(PubMed)
(28) Effects of discontinuing coffee intake on iron deficient Guatemalan toddlers' cognitive development and sleep by Engle PL1, VasDias T, Howard I, Romero-Abal ME, Quan de Serrano J, Bulux J, Solomons NW, Dewey KG.(PubMed)(1) An Up-to-date Meta-analysis of Coffee Consumption and Risk of Prostate Cancer by Xia J1, Chen J2, Xue JX3, Yang J3, Wang ZJ3.(PubMed)
(29) Reduction by coffee consumption of prostate cancer risk: Evidence from the Moli-sani cohort and cellular models by Pounis G1, Tabolacci C2, Costanzo S1, Cordella M2, Bonaccio M1, Rago L3, D'Arcangelo D4, Filippo Di Castelnuovo A1, de Gaetano G1, Donati MB1, Iacoviello L1,5, Facchiano F2; Moli-sani study investigators6.(PubMed)
(30) Coffee consumption and prostate cancer risk and progression in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study by Wilson KM1, Kasperzyk JL, Rider JR, Kenfield S, van Dam RM, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci E, Mucci LA.(PubMed)
(31) Inconsistency of Association between Coffee Consumption and Cognitive Function in Adults and Elderly in a Cross-Sectional Study (ELSA-Brasil) by Araújo LF1, Giatti L2, Reis RC3, Goulart AC4, Schmidt MI5, Duncan BB6, Ikram MA7, Barreto SM8.(PubMed)
(32) Association of Coffee Consumption with MRI Markers and Cognitive Function: A Population-Based Study by Araújo LF1,2, Mirza SS2, Bos D2,3, Niessen WJ3,4, Barreto SM1, van der Lugt A3, Vernooij MW2,3, Hofman A2, Tiemeier H2,5,6, Ikram MA2,3,(PubMed)
(33) Coffee drinking in middle age is not associated with cognitive performance in old age by Laitala VS1, Kaprio J, Koskenvuo M, Räihä I, Rinne JO, Silventoinen K.(PubMed)