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Thursday, 16 February 2017

The holistic Prevention, Management and Treatment of Dementia due to Spleen Qi deficiency - TCM Herbal Safflower (Hong Hua)

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar) 
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


                                 Dementia

Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies.


   TCM Treatment of Dementia Induced by Spleen Qi deficiency - TCM Herbal Safflower (Hong Hua)

Based on Chinese ancient medical records, causes of dementia are the results of (*)
B.1. Deficiency of Qi, mainly due to
B.3.3. Spleen Qi deficiency
Spleen is a vital organ, according to traditional Chinese medicine, with function in absoring nutrients and transporting them to body's organs and cells. Spleen Qi deficiency is a condition of the inability of the spleen in maximized transportation of nutrients to body organs, including the brain. Prolong period of malnutrition of brain cells may induce abnormal functions in information transmitting or death of neurons, causing cognitive impairment(844), including learning and memory deficits(842) and changes in brain tissues and behavior patterns(843)(842).



3. Safflower (Hong Hua)
Safflower, is an acrid, warm herb in nature, used in tradition Chinese medicine as anti-bacterial(1070), anti viral(1068)(1069), analgesic(1071), diabetic(1072)(1073), immune stimulant(1074), anti-inflammatory(1071), anti-spasmodic(1075) agents. As a blood tonic in Chinese medicine, the herb is effective in treating dysmenorrhea(1075), amenorrhea(1075), by breaking up blood stagnation|(1077)(11078), improving blood flow(15) through warm-pungent-liver efficiency network(1079) and regulation of female reproductivehormone(1080) via liver, heart channels(1076).

Phytochemicals
1. Neocarthamin
2. Carthamin
3. Carthamone
4. Carthamidin
5. Saffloryellow
6. Saffloryellow-A
7. Apalmitic acid
8. Myristic acid
9. Lauric acid
10. Etc.

Herbal Safflower (Hong Hua) used in the treatment of symptoms of degenerative diseases(1091) in traditional Chinese medicine, may be due to its effectiveness of phytochemicals, including major constituent hydroxy-safflor yellow A(1081)baicalin, baicalein, wogonin(1088), in exertion of its neuroprotective effects(1082)(1083), through anti oxidative stress(1086), anti inflammatory(1084))(1085) activities, against β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation(1081) induced neurotoxicity causes of Alzheimer's disease.(1087)(1089) and neurodegeneration(1090).

3.1. In Alzheimer's disease
Neuroinflammation has shown to be a major contribution to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD)(1092). Hydroxy-safflor yellow A (HSYA), isolated from safflower, inhibited Aβ 1-43₁ induced inflammation(1096) through anti microglia-mediated neurotoxicity activity(1094). In PC12 cells induced by β-amyloid neurotoxicity, the phytochemical also inhibited cell viability, glutathione level, through ameliorated enzymes found extensively in body tissues, formation of DNA fragmentation, levels of reactive oxygen species(1095) and reduced pro-inflammatory mediators(1097).


3.2. In Neuroprotective effects(1098)
Hydroxy-safflor yellow A (HSYA) at the molecular level, showed to inhibite energy metabolism disruption, excitatory amino acid toxicity, oxidative stress caused by impaired metabolism in rats with ischemia, through suppressing proinflammatory and upregulating anti-inflammatory mechanism(1099). According to Tianjin Medical University General Hospita, the herb also exerted its neuroprotective effects by inhibiting the accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), a major protein component of senile plaques induced neurotoxicity via decreased production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species(1101), ROS marker, malondialdehyde, and increased the level of glutathione, stabilized mitochondrial membrane(1100) and protected against excitotoxic neuronal death(1102).

3.3. In memory dysfunction
Intake of safflower oil has shown to improve learning and memory ability in n-3 fatty acid deficient male mice(1103) and in an age-related neuro deteriorative mouse model(1106), probably through modulated physiological properties of entorhinal cortex neurons(1104) and the balance of ratio of brain phospholipid(1107), respectively. Nicotiflorin, a natural flavonoid extracted from safflower, in cerebral multi-infarct dementia in rats model, showed to enhance spatial memory through reducd ROS production(1105).

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References
(842) Folate deficiency in rat pups during weaning causes learning and memory deficits. by Berrocal-Zaragoza MI1, Sequeira JM1, Murphy MM2, Fernandez-Ballart JD2, Abdel Baki SG3, Bergold PJ3, Quadros EV1.(PubMed)
(843) Changes in brain tissue and behavior patterns induced by single short-term fasting in mice. by Hisatomi Y1, Asakura K, Kugino K, Kurokawa M, Asakura T, Nakata K.(PubMed)
(844) Combined low calcium and lack magnesium is a risk factor for motor deficit in mice. by Taniguchi R1, Nakagawasai O, Tan-no K, Yamadera F, Nemoto W, Sato S, Yaoita F, Tadano T.(PubMed)

(1070) Possibility of fighting food borne bacteria by egyptian folk medicinal herbs and spices extracts by Tayel AA1, El-Tras WF.(PubMed)
(1071) Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of extract and two isolated flavonoids of Carthamus tinctorius L by Wang Y1, Chen P1, Tang C1, Wang Y1, Li Y1, Zhang H2.(PubMed)
(1072) Dietary treatments enriched in olive and safflower oils regulate seric and placental matrix metalloproteinases in maternal diabetes. by Martinez N1, Sosa M, Higa R, Fornes D, Capobianco E, Jawerbaum A.(PubMed)

(1073) Folic acid and safflower oil supplementation interacts and protects embryos from maternal diabetes-induced damage by Higa R1, Kurtz M, Mazzucco MB, Musikant D, White V, Jawerbaum A.(PubMed)
(1074) [Effects of Hengyan medicinal recipe on the regulation of immunity in patients with severe sepsis: a prospective clinical trial].[Article in Chinese] by Zhang ZH1, Zhou G, Gong X, Zhang R, Qu XG, Zeng C, Liu JL.(PubMed)
(1075) Towards a better understanding of medicinal uses of Carthamus tinctorius L. in traditional Chinese medicine: a phytochemical and pharmacological review by Zhou X1, Tang L1, Xu Y1, Zhou G1, Wang Z2.(PubMed)
(1076) Hong Hua(Complementary and Alternative Healing University)
(1077) [Effect of jiantai liquid on expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in uterus of mice with embryo implantation dysfunction induced by mifepristone].[Article in Chinese] by Liu YJ1, Huang GY, Yang MW, Gong P, Lu F.(PubMed)
(1078) [A clinical study of Safflower Yellow injection in treating coronary heart disease angina pectoris with Xin-blood stagnation syndrome].[Article in Chinese by Zhang Q1, Peng JH, Zhang XN.(PubMed)
(1079) [Analysis on anti-hepatoma effect of medicine invigorating blood circulation and eliminating blood stasis based on warm-pungent-liver efficiency network].[Article in Chinese] by Gu H, Ma L, Yuan B, Zhang YL, Wang Y, Qiao YJ.(PubMed)
(1080) Huangqi-Honghua combination and its main components ameliorate cerebral infarction with Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome by antioxidant action in rats by Cao J1, Chen Z2, Zhu Y1, Li Y1, Guo C1, Gao K1, Chen L1, Shi X1, Zhang X1, Yang Z3, Wen A4.(PubMed)
(1081) Huangqi-Honghua combination and its main components ameliorate cerebral infarction with Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome by antioxidant action in rats by Cao J1, Chen Z2, Zhu Y1, Li Y1, Guo C1, Gao K1, Chen L1, Shi X1, Zhang X1, Yang Z3, Wen A4.(PubMed)
(1082) Protective effects of Nicotiflorin on reducing memory dysfunction, energy metabolism failure and oxidative stress in multi-infarct dementia model rats by Huang JL1, Fu ST, Jiang YY, Cao YB, Guo ML, Wang Y, Xu Z.(PubMed)
(1083) Protective effects of hydroxysafflor yellow A on β-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells by Kong SZ1, Xian YF, Ip SP, Lai XP, Shi XG, Lin ZX, Su ZR.(PubMed)
(1084) Hydroxy-safflor yellow A inhibits neuroinflammation mediated by Aβ₁₋₄₂ in BV-2 cells by Zhang Z1, Wu Z2, Zhu X2, Hui X3, Pan J2, Xu Y4.(PubMed)
(1085) Hydroxysafflor yellow A suppresses inflammatory responses of BV2 microglia after oxygen-glucose deprivation by Li J1, Zhang S, Lu M, Chen Z, Chen C, Han L, Zhang M, Xu Y.(PubMed)
(1086) Carthamus red from Carthamus tinctorius L. exerts antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect against CCl(4)-induced liver damage in rats via the Nrf2 pathway by Wu S1, Yue Y, Tian H, Li Z, Li X, He W, Ding H.(PubMed)
(1087) Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid depletion activates caspases and decreases NMDA receptors in the brain of a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease by Calon F1, Lim GP, Morihara T, Yang F, Ubeda O, Salem N Jr, Frautschy SA, Cole GM.(PubMed)
(1088) Polyphenols and neuroprotection against ischemia and neurodegeneration by Lin B1.(PubMed)
(1089) Selective PCAF inhibitor ameliorates cognitive and behavioral deficits by suppressing NF-κB-mediated neuroinflammation induced by Aβ in a model of Alzheimer's disease by Park SY1, Kim MJ2, Kim YJ2, Lee YH3, Bae D4, Kim S4, Na Y5, Yoon HG1.(PubMed)
(1090) Timing of neurodegeneration and beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide deposition in the brain of aging kokanee salmon by Maldonado TA1, Jones RE, Norris DO.(PubMed)
(1091) Polyphenols and neuroprotection against ischemia and neurodegeneration by Lin B1.(PubMed)
(1092) Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease: chemokines produced by astrocytes and chemokine receptors by Liu C1, Cui G2, Zhu M3, Kang X4, Guo H5(PubMed)
(1093) The evolving biology of microglia in Alzheimer's disease by Malm TM1, Jay TR, Landreth GE.(PubMed)
(1094) Hydroxy-safflor yellow A inhibits neuroinflammation mediated by Aβ₁₋₄₂ in BV-2 cells by Zhang Z1, Wu Z2, Zhu X2, Hui X3, Pan J2, Xu Y4.(PubMed)
(1095) Protective effects of hydroxysafflor yellow A on β-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells by Kong SZ1, Xian YF, Ip SP, Lai XP, Shi XG, Lin ZX, Su ZR.(PubMed)
(1096) Hydroxysafflor yellow A suppresses inflammatory responses of BV2 microglia after oxygen-glucose deprivation. by Li J1, Zhang S, Lu M, Chen Z, Chen C, Han L, Zhang M, Xu Y.(PubMed)
(1097) Hydroxy-safflor yellow A attenuates Aβ₁₋₄₂-induced inflammation by modulating the JAK2/STAT3/NF-κB pathway by Zhang ZH1, Yu LJ2, Hui XC3, Wu ZZ2, Yin KL2, Yang H4, Xu Y5.(PubMed)
(1098) Effects of hydroxysafflor yellow A on the activity and mRNA expression of four CYP isozymes in rats by Xu RA1, Xu ZS2, Ge RS3.(PubMed)
(1099) A Systematic, Integrated Study on the Neuroprotective Effects of Hydroxysafflor Yellow A Revealed by 1H NMR-Based Metabonomics and the NF-κB Pathwa by Yuanyan Liu, 1 , 2 Zeqin Lian, 1 Haibo Zhu, 1 Yinghong Wang, 1 ,* Shishan Yu, 1 ,* Tingting Chen, 1 Jing Qu, 1 Jianbei Li, 1Shuanggang Ma, 1 and Xianhong Chen 1(PMC)
(1100) Protective effect of isorhynchophylline against β-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells by Xian YF1, Lin ZX, Mao QQ, Ip SP, Su ZR, Lai XP.(PubMed)
(1101) Neuroprotection of hydroxysafflor yellow A in the transient focal ischemia: inhibition of protein oxidation/nitration, 12/15-lipoxygenase and blood-brain barrier disruption by Sun L1, Yang L, Xu YW, Liang H, Han J, Zhao RJ, Cheng Y.(PubMed)
(1102) Neuroprotective effects of hydroxysafflor yellow A against excitotoxic neuronal death partially through down-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors by Yang Q1, Yang ZF, Liu SB, Zhang XN, Hou Y, Li XQ, Wu YM, Wen AD, Zhao MG.(PubMed)
(1104) Dietary intake of unsaturated fatty acids modulates physiological properties of entorhinal cortex neurons in mice by Arsenault D1, Julien C, Chen CT, Bazinet RP, Calon F.(PubMed)
(1105) Protective effects of Nicotiflorin on reducing memory dysfunction, energy metabolism failure and oxidative stress in multi-infarct dementia model rats by Huang JL1, Fu ST, Jiang YY, Cao YB, Guo ML, Wang Y, Xu Z.(PubMed)
(1106) Dietary alpha-linolenate/linoleate balance influences learning and memory in the senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) by Umezawa M1, Ohta A, Tojo H, Yagi H, Hosokawa M, Takeda T.(PubMed)
(1107) High-linoleate and high-alpha-linolenate diets affect learning ability and natural behavior in SAMR1 mice by Umezawa M1, Kogishi K, Tojo H, Yoshimura S, Seriu N, Ohta A, Takeda T, Hosokawa M.(PubMed)