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Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is defined as endocrinologic diseases among reproductive-age women caused by undeveloped follicles clumping on the ovaries that interferes with the function of the normal ovaries associated with a high risk for metabolic disorder(1) as resulting of enlarged ovaries(2), leading to hormone imbalance(excessive androgen and anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) )(1)(3)(4)(5), induced Hirsutism(6)(7), reproductive disorder(10(12)), risks of type 2 diabetes(9)(10)(11), metabolic syndrome(10)(12) and early cardiovasular disease(8)(13), acne(10)(14), endometrial cancer(18)(19),weight gain and obesity(15)(16)(17). The syndrome effects over 5% of women population or 1 in 20 women. Unfortunately, according to studies, women with PCOs after the reproductive age, are associated to continuously increase risk of type II diabetes, with no increasing altered glucose tolerance(20), CVD and hypertension(21).
In Traditional Chinese Perspective
While conventional medicine focus of using synthetic medication to induce ovulation and assisted artificial insemination for infertility couple, if the medicine fail, traditional Chinese medicine views polycystic ovarian syndrome in different approaches. Polycystic ovary syndrome, according to traditional Chinese medicine is a medical condition characterized by accumulative of fluid over a prolonged period of time causes of dampness and phlegms(1247a)(1247b) build up on the ovaries due to the effects of vary differentiations, affecting not only the women’s menstrual cycle, but also ovulation and fertility(1247a)(1247b).
PCOs Treatment according traditional Chinese medicine
Depending to differentiation, most common diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome can be classified into
Kidney yang deficiency
Along with common symptoms mentioned above, women with PCOs diagnosed with kidney yang deficiency may also experience yang vacuity induced cold expressive syndrome, including
lumbago, cold limbs, fatigue, cold aversion, feverish sensation in chest, palms and soles(1573),
difficulty in urination, enuresis, incontinence, declining libido and edema(1574) as a result of kidneys no longer perform their function in store fluid to moister and warm the body for healthy function in the body's organs and tissues, inducing adrenal insufficient chronic lower back pain(1575)(1580), depression(1575), hypothyroidism(1579)(1575), nephritis(1578)(1575), ...(1575), leading to failure in transform damp heat expression, promoted accentuation of inflammatory development of phlegm(1583).
Kidney yang deficiency has shown to alter carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms (free fatty acids, 1-monolinoleoylglycerol, and cholesterol), gut microbiota metabolism (indole-3-propionic acid), indued anovulatory infertility( 1581) and hypertension(1582) of which related to symptoms of PCOs(1576)(1577).
Foods for kidney yang deficiency
Kidney yang deficiency can be managed and treated in part with a diet of fresh and cooked warming foods.
Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, belonging to family Amaryllidaceae, native to central Asia. It has been used popularly in traditional and Chinese medicine in treating common cold(1587)(1588) and flu(1589)(1590), blood pressure(1591)(1592), cholesterol levels(1593)(1594), natural antibiotic(1595)(1596), cancers(1597)(1598)(1599) etc....(1585).
According to traditional Chinese medicine, the acrid, warm herbal da suan expresses its tonification of yang through enhancing function of large intestine, lung, spleen, stomach channels(1586).
1. Allyl methyl sulfide
2. Diallyl sulfide
5. Dimethyl sulfide
6. Divinyl sulfide
7. Dimethyl disulfide
8. Allyl methyl disulfide
12. Allyl propyl disulfide
18. 2-dithio-5 cyclohexene
Epidemiological literature suggested that garlic also displays anti metabolic syndrome(1602)(1603), including obesity(16000)(1601), elevated blood pressure(1591)(1592), elevated fasting plasma glucose(1604)(1605), high serum triglycerides(1604)(1602), and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)(1593)(1594)(1604) levels, insulin resistance(1606)(1607), proinflammation(1609)(1608) and renal damage(1610)(1611), reduced risk of cardiovascular disease(1612)(1613) and diabetes, probably through its effects on carbohydrate and lipid(1601) modulation via anti inflammatory(1606) and antioxidant(1603)(1606) mechanisms. All these factors may be the reasons of which garlic was recommended by modern traditional Chinese medicine doctors for management and treatment of PCOs' women who were diagnosed with kidney yang deficiency.
(1) Adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome by Sam S.(PubMed)
(2) A "kiss" before conception: triggering ovulation with kisspeptin-54 may improve IVF by Young SL.(PubMed)
(3.) Androgen hyperfunction and excessive heterosexual hair growth in women, with special attention to the polycystic ovarian syndrome by Lunde O1.(PubMed)
(4) Expression of anti-Müllerian hormone in letrozole rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome by Du DF1, Li XL, Fang F, Du MR.(PubMed)
(5) [Serum levels of anti-muller hormone in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy women of reproductive age].[Article in Bulgarian] by Parahuleva N, Pehlivanov B, Orbecova M, Deneva T, Uchikova E.(PubMed)
(6) [Current opinions on the etiology and pathophysiology of hirsutism].[Article in Polish] by Krysiak R1, Kedzia A, Okopień B.(PubMed)
(7) The clinical evaluation of hirsutism by Somani N1, Harrison S, Bergfeld WF.(PubMed)
(8) Polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin: our understanding in the past, present and future by Mayer SB1, Evans WS, Nestler JE.(PubMed)
(9) Association of mean platelet volume with androgens and insulin resistance in nonobese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome by Dogan BA1, Arduc A2, Tuna MM1, Karakılıc E1, Dagdelen I1, Tutuncu Y1, Berker D1, Guler S1.(PubMed)
(10) Approach to the patient: contraception in women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Yildiz BO1.(PubMed)
(11) Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): a significant contributor to the overall burden of type 2 diabetes in women by Talbott EO1, Zborowski JV, Rager JR, Kip KE, Xu X, Orchard TJ.(PubMed)
(12) Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Slovak women with polycystic ovary syndrome and its relation to metabolic and reproductive abnormalities by Figurová J1, Dravecká I, Javorský M, Petríková J, Lazúrová I.(PubMed)
(13) Role of Insulin Sensitizers on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis by Thethi TK1, Katalenich B2, Nagireddy P3, Chabbra P4, Kuhadiya N5, Fonseca V1.(PubMed)
(14) Acne in hirsute women by Lumezi BG1, Pupovci HL1, Berisha VL1, Goçi AU2, Gerqari A3.(PubMed)
(15) Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome by Naderpoor N1, Shorakae S, Joham A, Boyle J, De Courten B, Teede HJ.(PubMed)
(16) Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan by Teede H1, Deeks A, Moran L.(PubMed)
(17) Metabolic Evidence of Diminished Lipid Oxidation in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. by Whigham LD1, Butz DE2, Dashti H3, Tonelli M3, Johnson LK1, Cook ME2, Porter WP4, Eghbalnia HR5, Markley JL6, Lindheim SR7, Schoeller DA8, Abbott DH9, Assadi-Porter FM10.(PubMed)
(18) Risk of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Barry JA1, Azizia MM1, Hardiman PJ2.(PubMed)
(19) Risk of cancer among women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a Danish cohort study by Gottschau M1, Kjaer SK2, Jensen A1, Munk C1, Mellemkjaer L3.(PubMed)
(20) Polycystic ovary syndrome: metabolic consequences and long-term management by Carmina E1.(PubMed)
(21) Arterial stiffness is increased in asymptomatic nondiabetic postmenopausal women with a polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype by Armeni E1, Stamatelopoulos K, Rizos D, Georgiopoulos G, Kazani M, Kazani A, Kolyviras A, Stellos K, Panoulis K, Alexandrou A, Creatsa M, Papamichael C, Lambrinoudaki I.(PubMed)
(1246) [Clinical study of area of Jiangsu province of polycystic ovarian syndrome correlation distribution of traditional Chinese medicine syndrome type and improper diet]. [Article in Chinese] by Feng Y, Gao YP.(PubMed)
(1247) [Preliminary study on relationship of disease-syndrome-symptom of ovulatory disorder infertility based on factor analysis]. [Article in Chinese] by Li M, Ma K, Shan, J.(PubMed)
(1247a) A Comprehensive Treatment of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) bny by Liqin Zhao
(1573) [Effect of tonifying kidney on compliability of the aged]. [Article in Chinese] by Xu JH1, Cui L, Jia BH.(PubMed)
(1574) Understanding Kidney Yin and Kidney Yang(Shen-Nong shi)
(1575) Kidney Yang Deficiency: Use Warming Foods and Moxibustion By Jody Smith(Empow her)
(1576) Metabolic Signatures of Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome and Protective Effects of Two Herbal Extracts in Rats Using GC/TOF MS by Zhao L1, Wu H, Qiu M, Sun W, Wei R, Zheng X, Yang Y, Xin X, Zou H, Chen T, Liu J, Lu L, Su J, Ma C, Zhao A, Jia W.(PubMed)
(1577) Metabolic profiling reveals therapeutic biomarkers of processed Aconitum carmichaeli Debx in treating hydrocortisone induced kidney-yang deficiency syndrome rats by Tan Y1, Liu X2, Lu C3, He X1, Li J4, Xiao C5, Jiang M1, Yang J1, Zhou K6, Zhang Z2, Zhang W7, Lu A8.(PubMed)
(1578) [Multi-center randomized control study on the effects of syndrome differentiated traditional Chinese medicine therapy on CKD 1-2 with chronic nephritis proteinuria].
(1585) Popular #Herbs - #Garlic (Allium sativum) by Kyle J. Norton
(1586) Da Suan, Garlic(Complementary and Alternative Healing University)
(1587) Garlic for the common cold by Lissiman E1, Bhasale AL, Cohen M.(PubMed)
(1588) Preventing the common cold with a garlic supplement: a double-blind, placebo-controlled survey by Josling P1.(PubMed)
(1589) Supplementation with aged garlic extract improves both NK and γδ-T cell function and reduces the severity of cold and flu symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled nutrition intervention by Nantz MP1, Rowe CA, Muller CE, Creasy RA, Stanilka JM, Percival SS.(PubMed)
(1590)A strategic call to utilize Echinacea-garlic in flu-cold seasons by Abdullah T.(PubMed)
(1591) Garlic for hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials by Xiong XJ1, Wang PQ2, Li SJ3, Li XK4, Zhang YQ5, Wang J6.(PubMed)
(1592) Aged garlic extract lowers blood pressure in patients with treated but uncontrolled hypertension: a randomised controlled trial by Ried K1, Frank OR, Stocks NP.(PubMed)
(1593) Cholesterol-lowering effect of garlic extracts and organosulfur compounds: human and animal studies by Yeh YY1, Liu L.(PubMed)
(1594) Inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis by organosulfur compounds derived from garlic by Liu L1, Yeh YY.(PubMed)
(1595) A comparison of the antimicrobial activity of garlic, ginger, carrot, and turmeric pastes against Escherichia coli O157:H7 in laboratory buffer and ground beef by Gupta S1, Ravishankar S.(PubMed)
(1596) Antimicrobial activity of garlic, tea tree oil, and chlorhexidine against oral microorganisms by Groppo FC1, Ramacciato JC, Simões RP, Flório FM, Sartoratto A.(PubMed)
(1597) Garlic consumption and cancer prevention: meta-analyses of colorectal and stomach cancers by Fleischauer AT1, Poole C, Arab L.(PubMed)
(1598) Garlic and cancer: a critical review of the epidemiologic literature by Fleischauer AT1, Arab L.(PubMed)
(1599) Consumption of garlic and risk of colorectal cancer: an updated meta-analysis of prospective studies by Hu JY1, Hu YW1, Zhou JJ1, Zhang MW1, Li D1, Zheng S1.(PubMed)
(1600) Effect of garlic on high fat induced obesity by Kim MJ1, Kim HK.(PubMed)
(1601) Garlic essential oil protects against obesity-triggered nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through modulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress by Lai YS1, Chen WC, Ho CT, Lu KH, Lin SH, Tseng HC, Lin SY, Sheen LY.(PubMed)
(1602) Potential protective effects of Nigella sativa and Allium sativum against fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in rats by Al-Rasheed N1, Al-Rasheed N, Bassiouni Y, Faddah L, Mohamad AM.(PubMed)
(1603) Medicinal agents and metabolic syndrome by Rubio-Ruiz ME1, El Hafidi M, Pérez-Torres I, Baños G, Guarner V.(PubMed)
(1604) Including garlic in the diet may help lower blood glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides by Thomson M1, Al-Qattan KK, Bordia T, Ali M.(PubMed)
(1605) Influence of garlic on serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, serum total lipids and serum glucose in human subjects by Bakhsh R, Chughtai MI.(PubMed)
(1606) Attenuation of oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance by allium sativum in fructose-fed male rats by K S1, Senthilkumar GP, Sankar P, Bobby Z.(PubMed)
(1607) Garlic improves insulin sensitivity and associated metabolic syndromes in fructose fed rats by Padiya R1, Khatua TN, Bagul PK, Kuncha M, Banerjee SK.(PubMed)
(1608) Alliin, a garlic (Allium sativum) compound, prevents LPS-induced inflammation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by Quintero-Fabián S1, Ortuño-Sahagún D2, Vázquez-Carrera M3, López-Roa RI4.(PubMed)
(1609) Diallyl trisulfide ameliorates arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity by abrogation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in rats by Sumedha NC1, Miltonprabu S2.(PubMed)
(1610) Aged garlic extract attenuates gentamicin induced renal damage and oxidative stress in rats by Maldonado PD1, Barrera D, Medina-Campos ON, Hernández-Pando R, Ibarra-Rubio ME, Pedraza-Chaverrí J.(PubMed)
(1611) Antioxidant S-allylcysteine prevents gentamicin-induced oxidative stress and renal damage by Maldonado PD1, Barrera D, Rivero I, Mata R, Medina-Campos ON, Hernández-Pando R, Pedraza-Chaverrí J.(PubMed)
(1612) Garlic and cardiovascular disease: a critical review by Rahman K1, Lowe GM.(PubMed)
(1613) Role of garlic usage in cardiovascular disease prevention: an evidence-based approach by Qidwai W1, Ashfaq T.(PubMed)