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Thursday, 31 July 2014

Phytochemical Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and Cervical Cancer

By Kyle J. Norton

Indole-3-carbinol is a phytochemical in the class of Indoles, by the breaking down of the glucosinolate glucobrassicin,  found abundantly in cabbage, kale, Brussels sprouts, rutabaga, mustard greens, broccoli, etc.

Cervical cancer is malignant neoplasm of the cervix uteri or cervical area caused by abnormal cells growth with alternation of cells DNA. According to the American Cancer Society's, in 2014, 12,360 new cases of invasive cervical cancer will be diagnosed with the death of  4,020 patients. The risk of cervical cancer is higher in Hispanic women followed by African-Americans, Asians and Pacific Islanders, and whites(a).
Depending to the stage and grade of the cancer, if the cancer is found in the early stahe, hysterectomy may not be needed. Other while  after sugery, chemotherapy including Cisplatin, Fluorouracil (5-FU), Mitomycin, Paclitaxel, Ifosfamide, Carboplatin, Bevacizumab and radiotherapy may be necesary, but with certain side effects. Emerging suggestion of a healthy and balanced diet to improve high serum levels of antioxidants may reduce cervical neoplasia risk(b)(c)  but other suggested that the role of diet and nutrition in the etiology of cervical cancer is not yet resolved(d) and Catalan Institute of Oncology study showed statistically nonsignificant inverse associations were also observed for leafy vegetables, root vegetables, garlic and onions, citrus fruits, vitamin C, vitamin E and retinol for invasive squamous cervical cancer (ISC)(e).

Dietary indole-3-carbinol (I3C) prevented the development of estrogen-enhanced cancers including breast, endometrial and cervical cancers(1) due to its antitumor activities associated not only with  regulation of estrogen activity and metabolism, but also modulation of ER transcription activity(2) through both antiestrogenic and estrogenic activity(3). In human cervical cancer cells, in comparison to diindolylmethane (DIM), a major in vivo product of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), both I3C and DIM caused accumulation of DNA strand breaks in three cervical cancer cell lines.  I3C  increased apoptosis in target tissues in vivo.(4). In mice study, according to the The Long Island Campus of Albert Einstein College of Medicine, showed to prevent the cervical-vaginal cancer promoted high doses of estrogen in these mices(5) and increased PTEN expression in the cervical epithelium of the transgenic mouse in vivo(6)
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References
(a) Cerical cancer (Amerrican cancer society)
(b) Diet and serum micronutrients in relation to cervical neoplasia and cancer among low-income Brazilian women by Tomita LY1, Longatto Filho A, Costa MC, Andreoli MA, Villa LL, Franco EL, Cardoso MA; Brazilian Investigation into Nutrition and Cervical Cancer Prevention (BRINCA) Study Team.(PubMed)
(c) Associations of dietary dark-green and deep-yellow vegetables and fruits with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: modification by smoking by Tomita LY1, Roteli-Martins CM, Villa LL, Franco EL, Cardoso MA; BRINCA Study Team.(PubMed)
(d) Diet and the risk of in situ cervical cancer among white women in the United States by Ziegler RG1, Jones CJ, Brinton LA, Norman SA, Mallin K, Levine RS, Lehman HF, Hamman RF, Trumble AC, Rosenthal JF, et al.(PubMed)
(e) Dietary factors and in situ and invasive cervical cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study by González CA1, Travier N, Luján-Barroso L, Castellsagué X, Bosch FX, Roura E, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Palli D, Boeing H, Pala V, Sacerdote C, Tumino R, Panico S, Manjer J, Dillner J, Hallmans G, Kjellberg L, Sanchez MJ, Altzibar JM, Barricarte A, Navarro C, Rodriguez L, Allen N, Key TJ, Kaaks R, Rohrmann S, Overvad K, Olsen A, Tjønneland A, Munk C, Kjaer SK, Peeters PH, van Duijnhoven FJ, Clavel-Chapelon F, Boutron-Ruault MC, Trichopoulou A, Benetou V, Naska A, Lund E, Engeset D, Skeie G, Franceschi S, Slimani N, Rinaldi S, Riboli E.(PubMed)
 (1) Indole-3-carbinol is a negative regulator of estrogen by Auborn KJ1, Fan S, Rosen EM, Goodwin L, Chandraskaren A, Williams DE, Chen D, Carter TH.(PubMed)
(2) Indole-3-carbinol is a negative regulator of estrogen receptor-alpha signaling in human tumor cells. by Meng Q1, Yuan F, Goldberg ID, Rosen EM, Auborn K, Fan S.(PubMed)
(3) Indolo[3,2-b]carbazole: a dietary-derived factor that exhibits both antiestrogenic and estrogenic activity by Liu H1, Wormke M, Safe SH, Bjeldanes LF.(PubMed)
(4) Indole-3-carbinol and diindolylmethane induce apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells and in murine HPV16-transgenic preneoplastic cervical epithelium by Chen DZ1, Qi M, Auborn KJ, Carter TH.(PubMed)
(5) Indole-3-carbinol prevents cervical cancer in human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV16) transgenic mice by Jin L1, Qi M, Chen DZ, Anderson A, Yang GY, Arbeit JM, Auborn KJ.(PubMed)
(6) Indole-3-carbinol prevents PTEN loss in cervical cancer in vivo by Qi M1, Anderson AE, Chen DZ, Sun S, Auborn KJ.(PubMed)

Obesity Complication of Varicose Vein

By Kyle J. Norton

Obesity is defined as a medical condition of excess body fat has accumulated overtime, while overweight is a condition of excess body weight relatively to the height. According to the Body Mass Index(BMI), a BMI between 25 to 29.9 is considered over weight, while a BMI of over 30 is an indication of obesity. According to the statistic, 68% of American population are either overweight or obese.

B. How to calculate your BMI index
BMI= weight (kg)/ height (m2)

Varicose Vein
is defined as a condition of enlarged and tortuous veins appearing blue and purple squiggly just under the skin. It can lead to blood flowing backwards, causing pain in standing or walking.

How Obesity associates with Varicose Vein
1. According to the study of "
Associations of moderate and severe overweight with self-reported illness and medical care in Dutch adults" by Seidell JC, de Groot LC, van Sonsbeek JL, Deurenberg P, Hautvast JG., posted in PubMed, researchers wrote that In men, severe overweight was associated with hypertension, especially in men under 50 years of age. In women, severe overweight was associated with hypertension, diabetes, varicose veins, asthma/bronchitis, and hemorrhoids. Increased utilization of medical care and medications were also associated with severe overweight. For moderately overweight subjects, these associations were less clear or absent.

2. In a study of "Epidemiology and risk factors for varicose veins among older people: cross-sectional population study in the UK" by Clark A, Harvey I, Fowkes FG., posted in PubMed, researchers found that Trunk varices occur very commonly in older age groups with increasing age, obesity and possibly female sex as risk factors. Associations found with DVT and hypertension were based on history alone and must be interpreted with caution.

3. According to the abstract of "The risk of congestive heart failure is increased in persons with varicose veins" by Mäkivaara LA, Ahti TM, Luukkaala T, Hakama M, Laurikka JO., posted in PubMed, researchers filed the result that Marginally higher prevalence of CHF was found in persons with varicose veins than in those without (2.9% vs. 1.9%) with OR 1.6 (1.0-2.3) and sex and age adjusted OR 1.2 (0.8-1.9). The incidence of CHF was higher in subjects with varicose veins than in others (4.9 vs. 2.6 per 1000 person-years) with IDR 1.9 (1.1-2.9) and sex and age adjusted IOR 2.5 (1.4-4.6). The result was further adjusted for body mass index, arterial disease and hypertension; multi-adjusted IOR for the incidence of CHF by varicose veins was 2.1 (1.1-4.0).

4. In the study of "Incidence of varicose veins in Finland" byMäkivaara LA, Jukkola TM, Sisto T, Luukkaala T, Hakama M, Laurikka JO., posted in PubMed, researchers wrote that 157 individuals reported new varicose veins during the follow-up. The overall incidence was 13.5 per 1000 person years (8.5 for men and 19.2 for women). Female sex was an independent and statistically significant risk indicator of varicose veins (adjusted odds ratio, OR 2.4). The incidence was significantly higher at the age of 50-55 years (OR 1.6). Higher body mass index seemed to be related to higher risk of new varicose veins (OR 1.2-1.8), but the association failed to reach statistical significance. The level of education did not affect the incidence.

5. In the observation during a five-year follow-up period were studied of the study of "The risk of congestive heart failure is increased in persons with varicose veins" by Mäkivaara LA, Ahti TM, Luukkaala T, Hakama M, Laurikka JO., posted in Pubmed, researchers filed the conclusion that Our longitudinal observation is consistent with the hypothesis that persons with varicose veins have a higher risk of CHF which is not mediated through sex, age, overweight, arterial disease or hypertension.

6. Etc.

 Treatments of Obesity and Varicose Vein
1. In the abstract of " [Varicose vein surgery and obesity--experience with a new Boazul cuff in leg circumference up to 90 cm]",[Article in German], by Hermanns HJ., posted in PubMed, researcher found that The use of the bloodless limb technique for varicose vein surgery is very comfortable, especially in cases of severe varicose veins and obesity. Maintenance of operation standards and utmost care of the cuffs lead to the successful use of this procedure.

2. According to the study of "Using the Boazul cuff to reduce blood loss in varicose vein surgery" by Robinson J, Macierewicz J, Beard JD., posted in PubMed, researchers concluded that use of the Boazul cuff significantly decreases the blood loss from the avulsion sites during routine varicose vein surgery, and may encourage the surgeon to perform more avulsions.

3. Etc.


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Guacamole - The Dip for crispy nacho.

Recipe attributed to 30 minutes vegetarian recipes by Marie-laude Morin, Publisher Robert Rose at www,robertrose.ca

You will love the texture of this dip. Serve with crispy nacho.
Tip: If you like a touch of heat in your guacamole, add hot pepper sauce or a small amount of minced jalapeno pepper.
2 very ripe avocados  2
2 tbsp. freshly squeezed lemon juice  30mL
2 tsp. olive oil  10mL
1 tomato, seeded and diced   1
1 gloved garlic, minced   1
Pinch granulated sugar
Salt and freshly ground pepper
1. In food processor puree avocados until smooth. Or use a fork to smash avocado.
1. Stir in lemon juice, olive oil, tomato, garlic, sugar and salt and pepper to taste. Serve immediately as avocados have a tendency to blacken quickly. Serve 4.

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Tasty Italian with Mexican format - Prosciutto Pepper Quesadillas

Everyday Italian by Jean Pare and Sophia De Luca (Original series), Publisher Company's Coming.
You can view their website at www.companycoming.com

Tasty Italian flavours in a decidedly Mexican format.
This is fusion cuisine at it finest!
Silvered red pepper  1 cup  250mL
Chopped arugula, lightly packed  1/2 cup  125mL
Chopped prosciutto (or deli) ham  1/4 cup  60mL
Grated mozzarella cheese 1 cup  250mL
Flour tortillas (9inch, 23cm diameter) 2   2
Cooking oil  1/2tsp.  2mL
Combine first 3 ingredients in small bowl.
Sprinkle 1/4 cup (60mL) cheese over half of each tortilla. Spoon red pepper mixture over cheese. Sprinkle remaining cheese over top. Fold tortillas in half to cover filling. Press down lightly.
Brush both sides of quesadilla with cooking oil. Heat large frying pan on medium. Add quesadillas. Cook for about 4 minutes until bottom is golden. Turn. Cook for about 2 minutes until bottom is golden and cheese is melted. Cuts into 4 wedges each for a total of 8 wedges.
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Wednesday, 30 July 2014

Obesity Complication of Chronic Venus Insufficiency

By Kyle J. Norton

Obesity is defined as a medical condition of excess body fat has accumulated overtime, while overweight is a condition of excess body weight relatively to the height. According to the Body Mass Index(BMI), a BMI between 25 to 29.9 is considered over weight, while a BMI of over 30 is an indication of obesity. According to the statistic, 68% of American population are either overweight or obese. 

How to calculate your BMI index
BMI= weight (kg)/ height (m2)

Chronic venous insufficiency or CVI is defined as a condition of swelling in the veins in the leg due to blood accumulation as result of the veins no longer working effective in pumping oxygen-depleting blood back to the heart.

 How Obesity associates with Chronic Venus Insufficiency
1. In the examination of 36 limbs in 23 nonobese individuals and 44 limbs in 22 obese individuals of the study of "Impact of obesity on venous hemodynamics of the lower limbs" by Willenberg T, Schumacher A, Amann-Vesti B, Jacomella V, Thalhammer C, Diehm N, Baumgartner I, Husmann M., posted in PubMed, researchers filed the conclusion that Lower limb venous flow parameters differ significantly between healthy obese and nonobese individuals. These findings support the mechanical role of abdominal adipose tissue potentially leading to elevated risk for both venous thromboembolism and chronic venous insufficiency.

2. According to the study of "Obesity and impaired venous function" by van Rij AM, De Alwis CS, Jiang P, Christie RA, Hill GB, Dutton SJ, Thomson IA., posted in PubMed, researchers found that The CEAP clinical stage of venous disease is more advanced in obese patients than non-obese patients with comparable anatomical patterns of venous incompetence. This may be the result of raised intra-abdominal pressure reported in previous studies, leading to greater reflux, increased vein diameter and venous pressures.

3. In the study of "Clinical presentation and patterns of venous reflux in Thai patients with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI)" by Kanchanabat B, Wongmahisorn Y, Stapanavatr W, Kanchanasuttirak P, Manomaiphiboon A., posted in PubMed, the group found that Thai patients with CVI were relatively young. Visible varicose veins, pain, oedema and inflammation were uncommon and most patients could maintain their usual activities despite advanced venous disease. An association with obesity was not common. Despite a low prevalence of a history of previous DVT, the prevalence of deep vein reflux was high and commonly combined with superficial venous reflux.

4. In the observation of 40,095 individuals from 803 registers of primary care in Poland of the study of "The influence of environmental factors in chronic venous insufficiency" by Jawien A., posted in PubMed, Jawien A. indicated that in the other developed countries was reported. It was more common in women, but female sex was not found to be a strong risk factor. Among the risk factors most closely associated with CVI were age, family history of varicose veins, and constipation, whatever the sex. This is in keeping with findings from recent epidemiologic studies. Obesity and lack of physical activity were strongly associated with CVI in women, more so than in men.

5. According to the study of "[Influence of environmental risk factors on the development of chronic vein insufficiency]" [Article in Polish] by Sudoł-Szopińska I, Błachowiak K, Koziński P., posted in PubMed, researchers wrote that this paper presents basic information on CVI epidemiology, etiopathogenesis and pathophysiology and also reviews the literature on the following CVI risk factors: obesity, lack of physical activity, dietary habits, including constipation, pregnancy, genetic factors as well as prolonged sedentary or upright position during job performance.

6. Etc.

Treatments of Obesity and Chronic Venus Insufficiency
1. According to the study of "In situ hemodynamics of perforating veins in chronic venous insufficiency" by Delis KT, Husmann M, Kalodiki E, Wolfe JH, Nicolaides AN., posted in PubMed, researchers found that In addition to an increase in diameter, perforator incompetence is characterized by significantly higher mean and peak flow velocities, volume flow, and venous volume displaced outward, and a lower flow pulsatility. Differences in early reflux enable a better hemodynamic stratification of incompetent perforators in CVI classes. In the presence of deep reflux, incompetent perforators sustain further hemodynamic impairment. In situ hemodynamics enable quantification of the function of perforators and can be used in the identification of the clinically relevant perforators and the impact of surgery.

2. In the study of "Effect of external valvuloplasty of the deep vein in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency of the lower extremity" by Wang SM, Hu ZJ, Li SQ, Huang XL, Ye CS., posted in PubMed, researchers concluded that External valvuloplasty of the femoral vein combined with surgical repair of the superficial venous system improved the hemodynamic status of the lower limbs, restored valvular function more effectively, and achieved better outcomes than surgical repair of the superficial venous system alone.

3. Etc.
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Quesadillas, a perfect recipe for the end of summer

Recipe attributed to 30 minutes vegetarian recipes by Marie-laude Morin, Publisher Robert Rose at www,robertrose.ca

Fresh basil leaves add an explosion of flavor top this quesadillas. in a perfect recipe for the end of summer.

1/4 cup creamy goat cheese  60mL
3  large or small flour tortillas  3
1 zucchini thinly sliced into round  1
1/4 cup chopped onion   60mL
15  basil leaves  15
1/2 cup shredded Cheddar cheese
1. Spread goat cheese on half of each tortilla.
2. In a skillet, heat 1 tsp. (5mL) oil over medium high heat. Gently fry zucchini rounds, turning once until tender.
3. Place zucchini, tomatoes, onion, basil and cheddar cheese on top of goat cheese. Fold tortillas in half.
4. In a skillet heat 1 tsp. (5mL) oil over medium heat. Fry one quesadilla, turning once, for 2 -3 minutes per side until cheese is melted and tortilla is crispy. Repeat with remaining quesadilla, adding more oil between batches as necessary. Cut each quesadilla into 2 wedges.
Serve 4 to 6.


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Italian version of omelettes - Eggplant Frittata

Everyday Italian by Jean Pare and Sophia De Luca (Original series), Publisher Company's Coming.
You can view their website at www.companycoming.com

Frittatas are the Italian version of omelettes - except they aren't folded and they generally finish cooking under a broiler. This version includes plenty of Italian flavours from eggplant, red pepper and seasoning.
Cooking oil 2tsp. 10mL
Finely chopped peeled eggplant  11/2 cups  375 ml
Dried oregano  1/4tsp.   1mL
Large eggs  8   8
Finely chopped roasted red pepper 1/4 cup  60mL
Sliced green onion  2tbsp.  30mL
Garlic powder  1/4tsp.  2mL
Pepper 1/4tsp.  1mL
Heat cooking oil in large non-sticking frying pan on medium. Add eggplant and oregano. Cook for about 4 minutes, stirring occasionally, until eggplant is softened
Whisk remaining 6 ingredients in medium bowl. Pour over eggplant mixture. Reduce heat to medium-low, covered, for about 8 minutes until bottom is golden and top is almost set. Broil on centre rack oven for about 3 minutes until set. Cut into 6 wedges.
Tip: when baking or broiling food in a frying pan with a handle that isn't ovenproof. Wrap the handle in foil and keep it to the front of the oven, away from the element.

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Tuesday, 29 July 2014

Obesity Complication of Deep Vein Thrombosis

By Kyle J. Norton

 Obesity is defined as a medical condition of excess body fat has accumulated overtime, while overweight is a condition of excess body weight relatively to the height. According to the Body Mass Index(BMI), a BMI between 25 to 29.9 is considered over weight, while a BMI of over 30 is an indication of obesity. According to the statistic, 68% of American population are either overweight or obese. 

How to calculate your BMI index
BMI= weight (kg)/ height (m2)

 Deep Vein Thrombosis
is defined as a condition of blood clot in one of the deep veins of the body, especially in veins of the leg or pelvis that can lead to pain and swelling. it is not life threatening but obstruction of the blood flow in major organ may have a D. How dangerous consequence.

The Association of  Obesity and Deep Vein Thrombosis
According "Recent korean perspective of deep vein thrombosis after total knee arthroplasty" by Kim KI, Cho KY, Jin W, Khurana SS, Bae DK., in a study of 311 consecutive knees in 227 patients for total knee arthroplasty, posted in PubMed, researchers found that there were 9 cases (3.03%) of proximal DVT, 70 cases (23.57%) of distal DVT, and no symptomatic pulmonary embolism. Although this cohort had limited number of patients by a single surgeon, there is still low incidence of proximal DVT in Koreans with rare pulmonary embolism occurrence compared with those of the Western. High postoperative d-dimer levels were correlative, but no appropriate cutoff value was found. Obesity was a significant associated risk factor.

2. According to the study of "Influence of lipids and obesity on haemorheological parameters in patients with deep vein thrombosis" by Vayá A, Falcó C, Simó M, Ferrando F, Mira Y, Todolí J, España F, Corella D., posted in PubMed, researchers concluded that obesity were also independently associated with a greater risk of DVT. The  results suggest that increased EA (erythrocyte aggregation) constitute an independent risk factor for DVT. However, when associated to hyperlipidaemia and obesity it further increases thrombotic risk.

3. In the study of in 665 patients (701 ankles) who underwent primary total ankle replacementof the abstract of "Risk factors for symptomatic deep-vein thrombosis in patients after total ankle replacement who received routine chemical thromboprophylaxis" by Barg A, Henninger HB, Hintermann B., posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that osing a logistic multiple regression model we identified obesity, a previous venous thromboembolic event and the absence of full post-operative weight-bearing as independent risk factors for developing a symptomatic DVT. The incidence of symptomatic DVT after total ankle replacement and use of low-molecular-weight heparin is comparable with that in patients undergoing total knee or hip replacement.

4. According to the study of "Deep-vein thrombosis is associated with large uterine fibroids" by Shiota M, Kotani Y, Umemoto M, Tobiume T, Tsuritani M, Shimaoka M, Hoshiai H., posted in PubMed, researchers wrote in abstract that Pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) may occur upon a patient's first postoperative attempt of ambulation. PE is a serious complication, often leading to shock or sudden death. Reported rates of PE following gynecologic surgery are between 0.3% and 0.8%, while the incidence of postoperative deep-vein thrombosis (DVT), the major cause of PE, is between 17% and 20%. Therefore, effective preventive measures, such as preoperative assessment for asymptomatic DVT, should be considered. It is well known that DVT and/or PE are associated with large uterine fibroids, the common, benign tumor of myometrium. Here, to establish the statistical relationship between DVT risk and uterine fibroid size/weight, we assessed the preoperative DVT rate with respect to three possible risk factors: age, obesity level, and uterine size/weight.

5. In the study of 843 Japanese patients with a preoperative diagnosis of benign ovarian tumor who underwent tumorectomy or adnexectomy at our institution between July 2003 and December 201 of "Risk factors for deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism in benign ovarian tumor" by Shiota M, Kotani Y, Umemoto M, Tobiume T, Tsuritani M, Shimaoka M, Hoshiai H., posted in PubMed, researchers concluded that patience with age ≥ 50 years and BMI > 25 are independent risk factors for preoperative DVT in Japan.

6. Etc.

 Treatments of Obesity and Deep Vein Thrombosis
1. According to the abstract of "Management of deep vein thrombosis to reduce the incidence of post-thrombotic syndrome" by Lowe GD., posted in PubMed, researchers found that DVT should be individually assessed for the benefits and risks of continued oral anticoagulation, including patient preferences. Risk factors for recurrent DVT include active cancer, pregnancy, continued use of oral oestrogens, male sex, obesity, recurrent thrombosis, established PTS, permanent inferior vena caval filters, residual DVT, high fibrin d-dimer and other thrombophilias. Early walking, continued high levels of physical activity and wearing compression stockings for up to two years may also reduce the risk of PTS.

2. On the study of "Predictors of chronic disease at midlife and beyond--the health risks of obesity" by Nejat EJ, Polotsky AJ, Pal L., posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that A burgeoning pandemic of obesity is well characterized. 41% of U.S. adults are projected to be obese by 2015 and obesity, a potentially modifiable risk, is emerging as a leading predictor of lifetime health. The wide spectrum of morbidities related to excess body mass includes risks for diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemia, malignancy, venous thrombosis, degenerative joint disease, pulmonary compromise, sleep apnea, cholelithiasis, depression and overall reduced quality of life....... Aggressive efforts must be targeted towards population-based strategies to educate and sensitize all generations on contributors to and sequelae of excess body mass as obesity represents one of the few modifiable factors that impact on the quantity and quality of lifespan.

3. Etc.

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The Best Finger food without messy fingers: Cherry Tomatoes with Cheese

Recipe attributed to 30 minutes vegetarian recipes by Marie-laude Morin, Publisher Robert Rose at www,robertrose.ca


Finger food without messy fingers, each tomato is an hors d'oeuvre.
Tips:
Pignuts are the seeds of pinecones. They are fantastic nuts that becomes flavorful once they are toasted.
2 tbsp. pine nuts  30mL
25 cherry tomatoes   25
1/2 cup cream cheese softened  125 mL
Fresh parsley sprigs
1, In a skillet over medium heat, toast pine nuts, stirring constantly for 2 to 5 minutes or until golden and fragrant.
2. Cut top of cherry tomatoes. Remove seeds with small spoon.
3. In a bowl mash together cream cheese. Fill tomatoes with cream cheese mixture and place on serving platter. Garnish with a few frigs of parsley for color.
Variation: Cherry tomatoes with zesty cheese
mash 1/4 tsp. (1mL) smoke paprika and 1tsp. (5mL0 Grated lemon zest into cream cheese before adding pine nuts. make 25.
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The Best topping for pancakes or hot cereal: Breakfast Berry Compote

Everyday Italian by Jean Pare and Sophia De Luca (Original series), Publisher Company's Coming.
You can view their website at www.companycoming.com

Balsami vinegar heightens the berry flavors in this tart topping for pancakes or hot cereal. Also good served chilled over roll or bread.
Frozen mixed berries, thawed  1 cup  250mL
Sliced fresh strawberries  1 cup  250mL
Mixed fruit (or berry) jam  1/2 cup  125mL
balsamic vinegar  2tbsp.  30mL
Ground cinnamon 1/4tsp.  1mL
Combine all 5 ingredients in medium saucepan. Cook uncovered on medium for about 5 minutes, stirring occasionally, until mixture comes to a boil. Makes about 2 cups (500mL).

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Monday, 28 July 2014

Hormone Adionection - The risk of Obesity and Complications

By Kyle J. Norton

Recent study from the renowned institutions suggested that protein Adiponectin may be associated to risk of obesity. Adionection is a protein with function involved in regulating glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown. Therefore, it plays a causative role in the development of insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease, through probably mediated the metabolic effects of FGF21, a metabolic hormone, on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity(1a).

Obesity is defined as a medical condition of excess body fat accumulated overtime, while overweight is a condition of excess body weight relatively to the height. According to the Body Mass Index(BMI), a BMI between 25 to 29.9 is considered over weight, while a BMI of over 30 is an indication of obesity. According to the statistic, 68% of American population are either overweight or obese. 

In a study of all the fourth-grade school children (9 or 10 years of age) in the town of Ina during 2005-2008 (N = 1675), Japan, lower levels of adiponectin complexes were associated to in the abdominal obesity group than in the non-abdominal obesity group regardless of sex. In fact the impact of abdominal obesity was larger in boys than in girls(1).

Indeed, the alternation and mutation of adiponectin gene were also found to contribute to the genetic risk towards the development of  obesity, in the south Indian population study by the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation-ICMR Advanced Centre for Genomics of Type 2 Diabetes and Dr. Mohan's Diabetes Specialities Centre(2).

But in the study of calorie-restricted low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets (LFD and LCD among overweight and obese premenopausal women, researchers suggested that in these diet patterns serum leptin, but not adiponectin is found to effect on obesity's complications(3). In support of the above, the West China Medical School study showed that Leptin, the product of the obese gene, is an adipocyte-secreted protein hormone playing a key role in the progression of obesity(4)

The Russian study indicated the evaluation of metabolic disorders and adipokine synthesis in obese patients may optimize the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases and to personalize diet therapy(5).

Adiponectin receptor 1 agonists, matairesinol, arctiin, (-)-arctigenin and gramine, may be potential drug-candidates for hypoadiponectin related diseases, such as obesity(6)

Taken altogether, adipokine  synthesis is associated to risk of obesity, but the question of low level of adiponectin induces obesity or obesity causes lower levels of adiponectin remains largely unknown. Leptin, another member of adipokine  may be used as biomarker in management of the progression of the disease and its complications. As always, all articles written by Kyle J. Norton are for information & education only, please consult your Doctor & Related field specialist before applying
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References
(1a) Adiponectin mediates the metabolic effects of FGF21 on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in mice by Lin Z1, Tian H, Lam KS, Lin S, Hoo RC, Konishi M, Itoh N, Wang Y, Bornstein SR, Xu A, Li X.(PubMed)

(1) Abdominal obesity and serum adiponectin complexes among population-based elementary school children in Japan: a cross-sectional study by Ochiai H1, Shirasawa T, Nishimura R, Nanri H, Ohtsu T, Hoshino H, Tajima N, Kokaze A.(PubMed)
(2) Genetic association of ADIPOQ gene variants with type 2 diabetes, obesity and serum adiponectin levels in south Indian population by Ramya K1, Ayyappa KA, Ghosh S, Mohan V, Radha V.(PubMed)
(3) Favorable effects of low-fat and low-carbohydrate dietary patterns on serum leptin, but not adiponectin, among overweight and obese premenopausal women: a randomized trial by Llanos AA1, Krok JL2, Peng J3, Pennell ML3, Olivo-Marston S1, Vitolins MZ3, Degraffinreid CR2, Paskett ED(PubMed)
(4) Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel urea- and guanidine-based derivatives for the treatment of obesity-related hepatic steatosis by Liang X1, Pei H2, Ma L3, Ran Y4, Chen J5, Wang G6, Chen L5.(PubMed)
(5) [Adipokines and the metabolism of key nutrients in patients with obesity].

[Article in Russian] by Kirillova OO, Vorozhko IV, Gapparova KM, Chekhonina IuG, Sentsova TB, Tutel'ian VA.(PubMed)
(6) Identification of adiponectin receptor agonist utilizing a fluorescence polarization based high throughput assay by Sun Y1, Zang Z, Zhong L, Wu M, Su Q, Gao X, Zan W, Lin D, Zhao Y, Zhang Z.(PubMed)

Egg and scallion fried rice

Recipe attributed to 125 best  Chinese recipes by Bill Jones and Stephen Wong, published by Robert Rose.

1 tbsp. vegetable oil  15 mL
1 egg, beaten  1
salt and pepper to taste
1 tbsp. minced ginger root  15mL
2 green onions, finely chopped   2
2tbsp. chicken stock   25mL
2 tbsp. red bell pepper, finely chopped  25mL
3 cups cooked rice  750mL
salt and pepper to taste
1. in a non stick wok or large skillet, heat 1/2 tbsp. (7mL) oil over medium heat. Add eggs and cook to make a thin omelet by swirling the pan so the eggs flow onto as large as possible. Season lightly with salt and pepper. Remove, chopped coarsely and set aside.
2. heat remaining oil in wok over medium heat. Add ginger root and onions; stir-fry until fragrant, about 30 seconds. Add stock and red pepper; stir briefly. Add rice; stir-fry until well mixed and the grains are separated, about 2 minutes. Ass omelet pieces and stir to mix well. Season with salt and pepper; stir to mix. Serve immediately. Serving 4.
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The Quick and Healthy recipe: Sweet pepper crostini

Recipe attributed to Everyday Italian by Jean Pare and Sophia De Luca (Original series), Publisher Company's Coming.
You can view their website at www.companycoming.com

Easy and versatile recipe are the best friend of any cook. This recipe comes together quickly and can be served hot or cold. Goat cheese and fresh basil add a special touch.
Olive oil  1tbsp.  15mL
Thinly sliced red pepper  11/2 cups  375 mL
Thinly sliced yellow pepper  1/12 cup  375mL
Garlic cloves, thinly sliced  3   3
Salt sprinkle
Pepper, sprinkle
Whole wheat baguette bread slices, cut diagonally 1/4 inch (6mm) thick  18    18
Goat (Chevre) cheese, cut up  3Oz.  85g
Finely shredded basil  2tbsp.  30mL
Heat olive oil in large frying pan on medium. Add next 5 ingredients. Cook to about 15 minutes, stirring occasionally, until peppers are softened.
Arrange bread slices on ungreased baking sheet. Broil on top rack in oven for about 1 minute per side until golden.
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Sunday, 27 July 2014

Papaya and Diabetes


 People with Type II Diabetes may be thinking to add whole food papaya into their diet. the recent study suggested(1) ,
The finding not only showed the effectiveness of unripe pawpaw fruit (Carica papaya) in inhibition α-amylase, α-glucosidase, but also induced lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner, in rat pancreas(1).
The key enzymes of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, involved in the digestion of carbohydrates, have been linked to onset of type 2 diabetes. Inhibition of these enzymes can significantly reduce the post-prandial increase of blood glucose and have been considered by therapists in use for management of blood glucose level in type 2 diabetic and borderline patients(2).

In streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats study, the aqueous extract of leaves of C. papaya administered strongly controlled blood glucose levels(3), through prevention of hepatocyte disruption, as well as accumulation of glycogen and lipids via its hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect(4)

Diabetes is defined as a condition caused by insufficient insulin entering the bloodstream to regulate the glucose. It is either caused by cells in pancreas dying off or receptor sites clogged up by fat and cholesterol. In some cases, diabetes is also caused by allergic reactions of cells in the immune system.

In a new study, conducted by the researchers at the Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, fermented papaya preparation was tested whether it improves dermal wound healing outcomes in adult diabetic mice by preventing the  risk of infections(5).
The result was astonishing, the fermentation not only up regulated the Sp1 DNA binding activity(modulating the cellular response to DNA damage) in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) but also the protein and mRNA expression of Rac2(regulates a number of cellular functions)(5).

A randomized controlled clinical trial conducted at the Cardiac Centre, ANDI Centre of Excellence for Biomedical and Biomaterials Research and Department of Biosciences University of Mauritius, showed that oral administration of 6g FPP®/day for a period of 14 weeks could improve the general health status of several organs targeted by oxidative stress during diabetes and suggested that the supplement may be used in the management the complications of diabetes such as cardiovascular disease, neurological disease and other conditions worsened by overt inflammation and oxidative stress(6).

Taken altogether, unripe, fermented papaya and its' leaves may be effective in diabetic management  through controlling the levels of glucose and  reduced risk of complications.

Some Western researchers insisted that large sample size and multi center studies are necessary to validate its effectiveness by identifying the ingredients which are comparable to recently pharmaceutical medicine in use because geography, environment, time of harvest, etc. may influence the concentration of the food cultivation.
 In fact, herbalists have longly acknowledged that the external factors (mentioned above) may alter the quality of the herbs and foods by classifying these difference either through price or formula differentiation. In deed, the effectiveness with little or no adverse side effects of the formula is not the concentration of individual herb and a herb itself but the interaction of all ingredients in a herb and herbs in the same formula. Extracting only one ingredient of the herb for treatment of certain diseases may be effective but enhanced complicative consequences. As always, all articles written by Kyle J. Norton are for information & education only, please consult your Doctor & Related field specialist before applying.


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Permanently Eliminate All Types of Ovarian Cysts Within 2 Months

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References
(1) Inhibition of key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas by water-extractable phytochemicals from unripe pawpaw fruit (Carica papaya) by Oboh G, Olabiyi AA, Akinyemi AJ, Ademiluyi AO.(PubMed)
(2) Natural products as alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and their hypoglycaemic potential in the treatment of diabetes: an update by Tundis R1, Loizzo MR, Menichini F.(PubMed)
(3) Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of aqueous extract of Carica papaya Linn. leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats by Maniyar Y, Bhixavatimath P.(PubMed)
(4) Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by Juárez-Rojop IE1, Díaz-Zagoya JC, Ble-Castillo JL, Miranda-Osorio PH, Castell-Rodríguez AE, Tovilla-Zárate CA, Rodríguez-Hernández A, Aguilar-Mariscal H, Ramón-Frías T, Bermúdez-Ocaña DY.(PubMed)
(5) Correction of aberrant NADPH oxidase activity in blood-derived mononuclear cells from type II diabetes mellitus patients by a naturally fermented papaya preparation by Dickerson R1, Deshpande B, Gnyawali U, Lynch D, Gordillo GM, Schuster D, Osei K, Roy S.(PubMed)
(6) Effects of a short term supplementation of a fermented papaya preparation on biomarkers of diabetes mellitus in a randomized Mauritian population by Somanah J1, Aruoma OI, Gunness TK, Kowelssur S, Dambala V, Murad F, Googoolye K, Daus D, Indelicato J, Bourdon E, Bahorun T.(PubMed)

Sun-dried tomato Brushetta

Recipe attributed to Everyday Italian by Jean Pare and Sophia De Luca (Original series), Publisher Company's Coming.
You can view their website at www.companycoming.com

The addition od sundried tomato makes ordinary bruschetta extraordinary. There is no shortage of favor intensity here  - garlic, green onion, fresh basil and 2 types of tomato pack a lot of punch.
Chopped seeded Roman (plum) tomato 2 cups 500mL
Sun-dried tomatoes in oil, chopped   1/2 cup  125mL
Finely shredded basil  1/4 cup  60mL
Sliced green onion    2tbsp. 30mL
Oil from sun-dried tomatoes  1tbsp.  15 mL
Red wine vinegar 2 tsp. 10mL
Garlic clove, minced ( or 1/4tsp., 1mL powder)  1   1
salt sprinkle
Pepper sprinkle
Baquette bread slices (1/2 inch, 12cm, thick)
Combine first 9 ingredients in medium bowl. Let stand for 30 minutes to blend flavors.
Arrange bread slices on ungreased baking sheet. Broil on top rack in oven for about 1 minutes per side until golden. Spoon tomato mixture over top. Serve immediately. Makes 32 Bruschetta.
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Leek and bacon fried rice


Recipe attributed to 125 best  Chinese recipes by Bill Jones and Stephen Wong, published by Robert Rose.

4 strips bacon or pancetta  4, finely chopped
1 large whole leek, white and green parts separate and finely chopped   1
3 cups cook rice  750mL
1tbsp. chicken stock  15mL
Salt and pepper to taste
1. heat a non stick wok or skillet over medium heat. Add bacon and fry until golden and just beginning to turn brown, about 2 minutes. Add white part of leeks and stir fry until wilted and fragrant about 1 minute. Add green part of leek and sir to mix thoroughly.
2. Add rice to mixture; stir-fry until well combined and the grain are separated, about 2 minutes. Add chicken stock; cook, stirring for 1 minute or until the rice is heated through. (Add more stock if the rice appears too dry). Season with salt and pepper; stir to mix. Serve immediately. Serving 4.
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Saturday, 26 July 2014

The Stages of Endometriosis

 By Kyle J. Norton


During the last stage of the menstrual cycle, normally a layer of endometriosis lining on the inside of the uterus is expelled, known as menstruation blood, instead some of the endometriosis tissues grow somewhere in the body to cause endometriosis. Endometriosis also react to hormone signals of the monthly menstrual cycle, by building and breaking up tissues and eliminating them through menstrual period.
Endometriosis affects 
a) About 20% of reproductive age women with endometriosis present but without symptoms.
b) About 55% of women who have developed the new onset of severe menstrual cramps
c) About 25% of women with sub-fertility (less fertile than a normal couple), depending to the stages of endometriosis, according to the Clinical Center of Niš, the decreased fertilization rate in Stage I/II endometriosis might be a cause of subfertility in women, as a result of a hostile environment caused by the disease.
Since they grow in somewhere other than in the uterus, when they break there is no way for the period blood to exit causing blood attaching to the organs or lining of the abdomen resulting in scars or adheresion as well as weakening the normal function of organs.
Most of the time, the endometriosis tissues do not travel far. It is commonly found within the pelvic region, on the lining of peritoneum, in the ovaries, and on the surface of the uterus's outside wall, but they can be anywhere in the body such as well as fallopian tubes, the cervix, the vagina, and even the vulva.
Endometriosis can vary in appearance. It may be clear or white, reddish, brown or blue black, and cysts. They can be classified according to stage of severity(1):
a) Minimal stage:
Top surface, few in number. Commonly they are found in the inside wall of uterus, ligaments and ovary, causing a significant reduction in both progesterone and its ratio with 17 beta-oestradiol and luteal dysfunction and abnormal secretory patterns(3), in women with minimal stage endometriosis, of that may leads to unexplained causes of infertility(2). 



 b) Mild stage:
Deeper implants, greater numbers are presented. Commonly found in the same area as minimal stage, causing worsening of oocyte quality of women with mild stage of endometriosis of that may lead to infertility(4).

 c) Moderate stage:
Many implants, endometrial cysts present, affecting ovary function, causing scar tissues and adhesion is also present.
d) Severe stage:
Intensive peritoneal implants, large endometromas present and dense adhesion.
Each women experiences differently to endometriosis. Some women may have extensive endometrial tissues in their body but feel little or no pain at all, while other women may only be in the early stage of endometriosis but have excessive pain, according to the 1I Katedra i Klinika Ginekologii Onkologicznej i Ginekologii Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Lublinie, in the advanced stage of endometriosis, Increased peritoneal fluid ox-LDL levels observed in women with advanced-stage endometriosis suggest the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of the disease(5). The University of California-San Francisco (UCSF),  suggested that genetic microRNA 21 (MIR21) and DICER1 transcripts may play important roles for microRNAs (miRNAs) in the pathogenesis of severe versus mild endometriosis, potentially through regulation of gene silencing and epigenetic mechanisms(6).



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 Super foods Library, Eat Yourself Healthy With The Best of the Best Nature Has to Offer

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References
(1) Stages of endometriosis: Does it affect in vitro fertilization outcome by Pop-Trajkovic S1, Popović J2, Antić V2, Radović D2, Stavanovic M2, Vukomanović P2.(PubMed)
(2) Mid to late luteal phase steroids in minimal stage endometriosis and unexplained infertility.
Barry-Kinsella C1, Sharma SC, Cottell E, Harrison RF(PubMed)
(3) Cyclical gonadotrophin and progesterone secretion in women with minimal endometriosis by Williams CA, Oak MK, Elstein M.(PubMed)
(4) Follicular fluid from infertile women with mild endometriosis may compromise the meiotic spindles of bovine metaphase II oocytes by Da Broi MG1, Malvezzi H, Paz CC, Ferriani RA, Navarro PA(PubMed)
(5) [Increased oxidized LDL cholesterol levels in peritoneal fluid of women with advanced-stage endometriosis] [Article in Polish] by Polak G1, Mazurek D, Rogala E, Nowicka A, Derewianka-Polak M, Kotarski J(PubMed)
(6) Molecular evidence for differences in endometrium in severe versus mild endometriosis by Aghajanova L1, Giudice LC(PubMed)

Steam rice with grainy mustard and orange peel

Recipe attributed to 125 best  Chinese recipes by Bill Jones and Stephen Wong, published by Robert Rose

2 cups long-grain rice  500mL
31/2 cups stock or water  875mL
1tsp. salt  5mL
2tbsp. grainy mustard  25mL
1 orange, juice and chopped zest
1. In a pot with a tight-fitting pod, combine rice, stock or water, salt, mustard, orange juice and zest. bring to boil; cook, uncovered, stirring occasionally.
2 Cover pot tightly. Reduce heat to low and cook for 15 minutes. Remove from heat and let sit, with lid on for an additional 10 minutes.
Serve 4- 6.

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The best of home made Artichoke Salami Pizzettes

Recipe attributed to Everyday Italian by Jean Pare and Sophia De Luca (Original series), Publisher Company's Coming.
You can view their website at www.companycoming.com

Full sized pizzas are so old fashioned. These cute little mini pizzas make a bold flavor statement and a chic addition to any appetizer tray.
Basil pesto  1/4 cup  60mL
Unbaked pizza crust (12inch, 30cm diameter)  1    1
Grated Italian cheese blend 1/2 cup  125mL
Finely chopped marinated artichoke hearts  1/4 cup  60mL
Finely chopped salami (Such as Genoa)  1/4 cup  60mL
Finely chopped sun-dried tomatoes in oil 1/4 cup  60mL
Spread pesto on pizza crust. Cut out circle with 2 inch (5cm) round cookie cutter. Arrange on greased baking sheet with sides. Discard remaining pizza crust scraps.
Combine remaining 4 ingredients in a small bowl. Spoon bout 2 tsp. (10mL) onto pizza crust rounds. Bake in 400 degree F (205 degree C) oven for about 12 minutes until cheese is melted and golden. Make about 22 pizzettes.

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