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Saturday, 31 May 2014

The Science of Soy - The Eastern Viewpoints; Part A2: Soy and Risk of Breast cancer in Japanese Population

By Kyle J. Norton

Soy foods, including tofu have been in traditional Chinese diet over thousands of year, according to Chinese literature. The reduced risk of chronic disease in Asian population, including metabolic syndrome such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity and diabetes and lesser menopause symptoms in advanced age, may be aided by eating a lot of soy food accompanied with large portion of vegetables and fruits. Indeed, according to the study, only 10% of women in the East are experience symptoms of menopause in advanced age compared to over 70% of their Western counterparts.
According to Dr. Mark Messina, Ph.D., Soy foods contributed from 6.5%8  to 12.8%7  of total protein intake in older adult in Japan.(b)

The approval of cardiovascular benefit of soy by FDA in 1999 accompanied with the discovery of health benefits in clinical studies over past decade, prompted the promotion and advertisement of soy's health benefits in every aspect in Western society. Evidences could be seen by walking through the supermarkets and drug  stores.  Soy supplements and products such as tofu, soy milk, soy-based infant formula, and meatless “texturized vegetable protein” burgers were widely available. According to the United Soybean Board’s 2004–2005, 25% of Americans consumed soy foods or beverages at least once per week, and 74% viewed soy products as healthy.

Today, the promotion of soy is no longer existed, it may be results of discovery of adverse effects in single ingredient and animal studies, as intake of soy is associated to induce risk of certain mammary cancers and infertility. The publication of the result have drawn many criticisms. According to Thomas Badger, director and senior investigator at the Arkansas Children’s Nutrition Center in Little Rock, these effects are seen only under certain experimental conditions that are not likely to occur in humans—and therein lies the crux of the debate(a). Equol (4',7-isoflavandiol), an isoflavandiol metabolized from daidzein may be the causes, as 90% of Eastern population are equol producers but only 30% in the West.
The explanation of the positive effect of soy isoflavones in reduced risk of mammary cancers by  University of Goettingen may be interesting, as researchers said" Most importantly, there is dispute as to whether isoflavones derived from soy or red clover have negative, positive or any effect at all on the mammary gland or endometrium. It is beyond any doubt that soy products may have cancer preventing properties in a variety of organs including the mammary gland. However, these properties may only be exerted if the developing organ was under the influence of isoflavones during childhood and puberty".

Soybean is  a genus Glycine, belonging to the family Fabaceae, one of the legumes that contains twice as much protein per acre as any other major vegetable or grain crop, native to Southeast Asia. Now, it is grown worldwide with suitable climate for commercial profits.

Nutrients
1. Carbohydrates
2. Dietary fiber
3. Fat
4. Protein
5. Essential amino acid
6. Vitamin A
7. Vitamin B6
8. Vitamin B12
9. Vitamin C
10. Vitamin K
11. Calcium
12. Iron
13. Magnesium
14. Phosphorus
15. Potassium
16. Sodium
17. Zinc
18. Etc.

Phytochemicals
1. Isoflavones
2. Genistein
3. Saponins
4. Beta-sitosterol
5. Daidzein

I. Soy in Eastern population
A. The Japanese population
Japan, an island nation in the Pacific Ocean, lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south(c). According to Moriyama, Japanese women and men live longer and healthier than everyone else on Earth, it may be result of  healthier Japanese diet and lifestyle. According to the World Health Organization, the Japanese have an average of 75 years healthy living with disability-free, it may be due to average soy intake 10 to 70 times higher than in Western people(d)(e).
A.2. Soy and Risk of Breast cancer in Japanese Population
Breast cancer (malignant breast neoplasm) is a cancer started in the tissues of the breast either from the inner lining of milk ducts (Ductal carcinoma) or the lobules (Lobular carcinoma) that supply the ducts with milk. There is also rare cases that breast cancer started in other areas of the breast. In 2010, over 250,000 new cases of breast cancer were expected to be diagnosed in women in the U.S. alone and the risk of getting invasive breast cancer during life time of a women is 1/8.
The searching of keyword in PubMed with keywords, soy and breast cancer in Japanese women, found 15 related studies.
Epidemiologic evidence suggesting high intake of soy in Japanese population is associated to reduce risk of breast cancer(1) and regular consumption of probiotic beverage and isoflavones since adolescence was inversely associated with the incidence of breast cancer in Japanese women(2)(2a).

The study in the testing of oral administration of  IF-rich tablet (20 and 40 mg/day) on climacteric women,  showed  the product not only reduced risk of breast cancer but also improved of bone density, hypertension and climacteric symptoms, cardiovascular diseases, gynecological problems and possible immune potentiation(3)

Japanese women have lower incidence of and mortality from breast cancer, compared to Caucasians, it may be result of large amount intake soy protein and isoflavones, as high dietary intake of phytoestrogens, mainly in the form of soy products, can produce circulating levels of phytoestrogens that are known experimentally to have oestrogenic effects(4).

According to the Loma Linda University, Asian population consumes as much as 25 g of soy protein or 100 mg of isoflavones per day(5).
Epidemiological Western studies have linked levels of Genistein and daidzein in stimulating breast tumor growth and antagonize the effects of tamoxifen have been inclusive. Some researchers  suggested that women with current or past breast cancer should be aware of the risks of potential tumor growth when taking soy products(6).

In Japanese population, serum of isoflavones and insulin levels were not associated with breast cancer risk, in a case-control study of 63 histologically confirmed breast cancer patients and 76 controls, of serum isoflavone, insulin and adiponectin levels with breast cancer risk(7).

The review of Soy for breast cancer survivors, also rejected the above claim of adult consumption of soy affecting the risk of developing breast cancer or that soy consumption affects the survival of breast cancer patients(8). In deed, in Japanese study in testing the serum concentrations of genistein and daidzein, showed urinary excretion in 10 women and 9 men who consumed a typical low-fat diet with much rice and soy products, fish, and vegetables, in a rural village south of Kyoto, Japan, indicated a co-related to isoflavonoids  intake and serum concentrations of genistein and daidzein and suggested that these may be a result of low mortality in breast and prostate cancer of Japanese women and men, respectively(9). In fact, tofu is found to be associated with the serum concentrations of genistein and daidzein  but fermented product, such as miso showed a slight association with serum concentrations of these phytoestrogens with serum concentrations of equol showed associated with dietary intake of tofu and miso soup(10).

Soymilk, a flavor drink on breakfast in Asian diet, when combined with combination with probiotic Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) also showed to prevent the development of mammary tumors through suppression of tumor growth and might be a beneficial dietary style for breast cancer prevention(11). Intake of soy combined with seaweed in equol producers, showed seaweed favorably alters estrogen and phytoestrogen metabolism and these changes likely include modulation of colonic bacteria, in healthy postmenopausal women(12). In premenopausal Japanese women study with randomly assigned to receive either a soymilk-supplemented diet (n = 31) or a normal (control) diet (n = 29), involved three consecutive menstrual cycles showed the  estrone and estradiol levels were decreased by 23% and 27%, respectively, in the soymilk-supplemented group but insisted that larger studies will be required to confirm the ability of soy products to reduce serum estrogen levels(12a). Other study in 50 healthy premenopausal Japanese women, also showed a similar result as blood samples drawn from each subject on Days 11 and 22 of her menstrual cycle, suggested that  the consumption of soy products lowers the risk of developing breast cancer risk in modifying estrogen metabolism(12b).

In postmenopausal Japanese women, according to the study from the Takayama, with participants members aged 35 years or older in 1992 with follow-up was conducted from the time of the baseline study (September 1, 1992) to the end of March 2008, concluded that soy and isoflavone intakes may have a protective effect on postmenopausal breast cancer. Risks of breast cancer were  decreased  among women with a moderate intake of soy and isoflavone(13).

In a total of 678 breast cancer cases and 3,390 age- and menopausal status-matched noncancer controls, soy showed a protective effect against breast cancer risk differs by receptor status, including with  ER-positive (ER+) and HER2-negative (HER2-)(14). Genistein a major component of soybean isoflavone, has been found to induce breast cancer in some Western study, also exerted its anti breast cancer preventive effect in a breast cancer cell overexpressing HER-2,  as genistein enhances necrotic-like cell death of the breast cancer cells through the inactivation of HER-2 receptor and Akt which plays a key role in multiple cellular processes in combined with chemotherapeutic agent (15).

 Unfortunately, report on a Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study. From 1988 to 1990, 30,454 women aged 40-79 years, completed a questionnaire on diet and other lifestyle features, suggested  that consumption of soy food has no protective effects against breast cancer, but insisted that further large-scale investigations eliciting genetic factors may clarify different roles of various soybean-ingredient foods on the risk of breast cancer(16).

According to DR. Nagata C. the protective risk against breast cancer only found in in Asian but not Western populations with intake of soy, may be due to consume levels of soy typical in Asian diets. Researchers should also take account of amount of soy isoflavones consumed, the form and food source of isoflavones, timing of isoflavone exposure, estrogen receptor status of tumors, and equol-producer status and hormonal profile of individuals. These factors might explain the heterogeneity of results from studies(17).

Conclusion
 Dr, Rice S.  Dr. Whitehead SA., in the differentiation of phytoestrogens and breast cancer--promoters or protectors? said "a paradox concerning the epidemiology of breast cancer and the dietary intake of phytoestrogens that bind weakly to oestrogen receptors and initiate oestrogen-dependent transcription. In Eastern countries, such as Japan, the incidence of breast cancer is approximately one-third that of Western countries whilst their high dietary intake of phytoestrogens, mainly in the form of soy products, can produce circulating levels of phytoestrogens that are known experimentally to have oestrogenic effects. The actions of phytoestrogens on oestrogen receptors and key enzymes that convert androgens to oestrogens in relation to the growth of breast cancer cells. In addition, it compares the experimental and epidemiological evidence pertinent to the potential beneficial or harmful effects of phytoestrogens in relation to the incidence/progression of breast cancer and their efficacy as natural alternatives to conventional HRT"(18).

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References
(a) The Science of Soy: What Do We Really Know? by Julia R. Barrett
(b) Guideline for healthy soy intake(the Unite Soybean board)
(c) Japan, Wikipedia
(d)  Erdman JW Jr. AHA Science Advisory: soy protein and cardiovascular disease: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the AHA. Circulation. 2000; 102: 2555–2559
(Soy protein and cardiovascular disease)
(e) van der Schouw YT, Kreijkamp-Kaspers S, Peeters PH, Keinan-Boker L, Rimm EB, Grobbee DE. Prospective study on usual dietary phytoestrogen intake and cardiovascular disease risk in Western women. Circulation. 2005; 111: 465–471(Cardiovascular diseases in women)
(1)  Soy intake and breast cancer risk: an evaluation based on a systematic review of epidemiologic evidence among the Japanese population(PubMed)
(2) Probiotic Beverage with Soy Isoflavone Consumption for Breast Cancer Prevention: A Case-control Study by Toi M1, Hirota S, Tomotaki A, Sato N, Hozumi Y, Anan K, Nagashima T, Tokuda Y, Masuda N, Ohsumi S, Ohno S, Takahashi M, Hayashi H, Yamamoto S, Ohashi Y.(PubMed)
(2a) Yamamoto S1, Sobue T, Kobayashi M, Sasaki S, Tsugane S; Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study on Cancer Cardiovascular Diseases Group.(PubMed)
(3) Isoflavones for prevention of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, gynecological problems and possible immune potentiation by Watanabe S1, Uesugi S, Kikuchi Y.(PubMed)
(4) Phytoestrogens and breast cancer--promoters or protectors? by Rice S1, Whitehead SA.(PubMed)
(5) Estimated Asian adult soy protein and isoflavone intakes, by Messina M1, Nagata C, Wu AH.(PubMed).
(6) Effects of soy phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein on breast cancer growth by de Lemos ML.(PubMed)
(7) Minatoya M1, Kutomi G, Asakura S, Otokozawa S, Sugiyama Y, Ohnishi H, Akasaka H, Miura T, Mori M, Hirata K.(PubMed)
(8) Soy for breast cancer survivors: a critical review of the literature by Messina MJ1, Loprinzi CL.(PubMed)
(9) Association of serum phytoestrogen concentration and dietary habits in a sample set of the JACC Study by Ozasa K1, Nakao M, Watanabe Y, Hayashi K, Miki T, Mikami K, Mori M, Sakauchi F, Washio M, Ito Y, Suzuki K, Kubo T, Wakai K, Tamakoshi A; JACC Study Group.(PubMed)
(10) Urinary excretion of lignans and isoflavonoid phytoestrogens in Japanese men and women consuming a traditional Japanese diet by Adlercreutz H1, Honjo H, Higashi A, Fotsis T, Hämäläinen E, Hasegawa T, Okada H.(PubMed)
(11) Lactobacillus casei Shirota enhances the preventive efficacy of soymilk in chemically induced breast cancer by Kaga C1, Takagi A, Kano M, Kado S, Kato I, Sakai M, Miyazaki K, Nanno M, Ishikawa F, Ohashi Y, Toi M.(PubMed)
(12) Dietary seaweed modifies estrogen and phytoestrogen metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women by Teas J1, Hurley TG, Hebert JR, Franke AA, Sepkovic DW, Kurzer MS.(PubMed)
(12a) Effect of soymilk consumption on serum estrogen concentrations in premenopausal Japanese women by Nagata C1, Takatsuka N, Inaba S, Kawakami N, Shimizu H.(PubMed)
(12b) Decreased serum estradiol concentration associated with high dietary intake of soy products in premenopausal Japanese women by Nagata C1, Kabuto M, Kurisu Y, Shimizu H.(PubMed)
(13) Soy isoflavone intake and breast cancer risk in Japan: from the Takayama study by Wada K1, Nakamura K, Tamai Y, Tsuji M, Kawachi T, Hori A, Takeyama N, Tanabashi S, Matsushita S, Tokimitsu N, Nagata C.(PubMed)
(14) Effect of soybean on breast cancer according to receptor status: a case-control study in Japan by Suzuki T1, Matsuo K, Tsunoda N, Hirose K, Hiraki A, Kawase T, Yamashita T, Iwata H, Tanaka H, Tajima K.(PubMed)
(15) Genistein, a soy isoflavone, enhances necrotic-like cell death in a breast cancer cell treated with a chemotherapeutic agent by Satoh H1, Nishikawa K, Suzuki K, Asano R, Virgona N, Ichikawa T, Hagiwara K, Yano T.(PubMed)
(16) Consumption of soy foods and the risk of breast cancer: findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study by Nishio K1, Niwa Y, Toyoshima H, Tamakoshi K, Kondo T, Yatsuya H, Yamamoto A, Suzuki S, Tokudome S, Lin Y, Wakai K, Hamajima N, Tamakoshi A(PubMed)
(17) Factors to consider in the association between soy isoflavone intake and breast cancer risk.
PubMed)
(18)  Phytoestrogens and breast cancer--promoters or protectors? by Rice S1, Whitehead SA.(PubMed)

Phytochemical Sulforaphane (Isothiocyanates) and neuroprotective effect

Dithiolthiones are phytochemicals in the class of Organosulfides, found abundantly in cruciferous vegetables, garden sorrel, horseradish, etc.

Sulforaphane, a naturally organosulfur compound found in broccoli, showed to exert its neuroprotective effects through significantly attenuated the scopolamine-induced memory impairment and improved cholinergic system reactivity, as indicated by an increased ACh level, decreased AChE activity, and increased choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expression in the hippocampus and frontal cortex(1). in a variety of acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases, phytochemicals, isothiocyanate sulforaphane, derived from the hydrolysis of the glucosinolate glucoraphanin mainly present in Brassica vegetables, demonstrated its neuroprotective effects in several in vitro and in vivo studies, may be mainly ascribed to its peculiar ability to activate the Nrf2/ARE pathway(2). In dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), the phytochemical showed the neuroprotective effect through its ability to enhance glutathione levels and its dependent enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase) and to modulate neuronal survival pathways(3).


Ovarian Cysts And PCOS Elimination
Holistic System In Existence That Will Show You How To
Permanently Eliminate All Types of Ovarian Cysts Within 2 Months


Back to 1000 free AND HEALTHY recipes and counting
http://kylejnorton.blogspot.ca/p/recipes.html

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References
(1) Sulforaphane alleviates scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice by Lee S1, Kim J1, Seo SG2, Choi BR3, Han JS3, Lee KW4, Kim J5.(PubMed)
(2) Sulforaphane as a potential protective phytochemical against neurodegenerative diseases byTarozzi A1, Angeloni C, Malaguti M, Morroni F, Hrelia S, Hrelia P.(PubMed)
(3) Neuroprotective effect of sulforaphane in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned mouse model of Parkinson's disease byMorroni F1, Tarozzi A, Sita G, Bolondi C, Zolezzi Moraga JM, Cantelli-Forti G, Hrelia P.(PubMed)

Herbal Chamomile and skin cancer

Chamomile is also known as camomile, common name of many species daisy-like plants in the family Asteraceae. The herb has been used in traditional medicine as antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory constituents and to treat menstrual cramps and sleep disorders, reduce cramping and spastic pain in the bowels, relieve excessive gas and bloating in the intestine, etc.

Ingredients
Guaianolides matricarin and achillin, acetoxyachillin and leucodin (= desacetoxymatricarin), corresponding C-11 stereoisomers(a),(Z)-2-β-d-glucopyranosyloxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid (cis-GMCA), chlorogenic acid, (E)-2-β-d-glucopyranosyloxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid (trans-GMCA), quercetagetin-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-β-d-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-β-d-glucoside, chamaemeloside, apigenin 7-O-(6″-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranoside), apigenin] and one polyacetylene (tonghaosu)(b).
Basal cell cancer is the most common type of skin cancer as a result of abnormal growth of the cells in the lowest layer of the epidermis. The cancer rarely spread and kill but can cause significant destruction and disfigurement to the affected skin area and accounted for more than 90% of all skin cancer in the U.S.
According to statistic, skin cancers accounted for approximately 40% of all cancers reported in the United States and approximately 9,500 deaths per year. Herbal chamomile showed to inhibited skin cancer cell lines through its antioxidant effects via inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) type free radicals probably via downregulation of H2O2-generated free radicals in human skin fibroblasts (1). Apigenin , a chemical constituent of flavonoid found in chamomile, with 10 mumoles apigenin in 200 microliters DMSO:acetone (1:9) prior to each UVB exposure showed a promised resulted in reduction in cancer incidence (52% inhibition), through absorbing ultraviolet light or decreasing DNA damage(2). In support of the above, the National Taiwan University, indicated that a effectiveness of apigenin, in suppression of 12-0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate-(TPA)-mediated tumor promotion of mouse skin, through vary mechanisms(3).

Ovarian Cysts And PCOS Elimination
Holistic System In Existence That Will Show You How To
Permanently Eliminate All Types of Ovarian Cysts Within 2 Months


Back to 1000 free AND HEALTHY recipes and counting
http://kylejnorton.blogspot.ca/p/recipes.html

Back to Kyle J. Norton Home page http://kylejnorton.blogspot.ca    

References
(1) The active natural anti-oxidant properties of chamomile, milk thistle, and halophilic bacterial components in human skin in vitro by Mamalis A1, Nguyen DH, Brody N, Jagdeo J.(PubMed)
(2) Inhibition of ultraviolet light induced skin carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice by apigenin, a plant flavonoid by Birt DF1, Mitchell D, Gold B, Pour P, Pinch HC.(PubMed)
(3) Suppression of protein kinase C and nuclear oncogene expression as possible molecular mechanisms of cancer chemoprevention by apigenin and curcumin by Lin JK1, Chen YC, Huang YT, Lin-Shiau SY.(PubMed)

Curried tomato and Shellfish broth


Recipe by
125 Chinese recipes with Bill Jones and Stephen Wong

6 scallops, thinly sliced
8 prawns, peeled and deveined
salt and freshly ground white pepper to taste
2 tsp. vegetable oil
1 small onion, sliced
1tbsp. curry powder, preferably madras
5 cups chicken stock
4 small tomatoes, seed and quartered
12 clams scrubbed
2 cups thinly sliced mustard green or sui choy (Napa cabbage)
salt and pepper to taste
season seafood with salt and pepper; set aside
In a large saucepan or soup pot, heat oil over medium heat for 30 seconds. Add onion and curry powder; sauté for 1 minute. Add chicken stock; bring to a boil. Add tomatoes and cook for 3 minutes. Add clam; cook until they open, about 2 - 5 minutes, depending on size. Skim off any impurities that rise to the top.
Add scallops, prawns and mustard green or cabbage; bring to a boil. Remove from heat. Season to taste with salt and pepper. Cover and allow to steep for 2 minutes. Serve immediately.


Ovarian Cysts And PCOS Elimination
Holistic System In Existence That Will Show You How To
Permanently Eliminate All Types of Ovarian Cysts Within 2 Months


Back to 1000 free AND HEALTHY recipes and counting
http://kylejnorton.blogspot.ca/p/recipes.html

Back to Kyle J. Norton Home page http://kylejnorton.blogspot.ca     

Friday, 30 May 2014

The Science of Soy - The Eastern Viewpoints; Part A1: Soy and the risk of cerebral infarction (CI) and myocardial infarction (MI) in Japan population

Soy foods, including tofu have been in traditional Chinese diet over thousands of year, according to Chinese literature. The reduced risk of chronic disease in Asian population, including metabolic syndrome such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity and diabetes and lesser menopause symptoms in advanced age, may be aided by eating a lot of soy food accompanied with large portion of vegetables and fruits. Indeed, according to the study, only 10% of women in the East are experience symptoms of menopause in advanced age compared to over 70% of their Western counterparts.
According to Dr. Mark Messina, Ph.D., Soy foods contributed from 6.5%8  to 12.8%7  of total protein intake in older adult in Japan.(b)

The approval of cardiovascular benefit of soy by FDA in 1999 accompanied with the discovery of health benefits in clinical studies over past decade, prompted the promotion and advertisement of soy's health benefits in every aspect in Western society. Evidences could be seen by walking through the supermarkets and drug  stores.  Soy supplements and products such as tofu, soy milk, soy-based infant formula, and meatless “texturized vegetable protein” burgers were widely available. According to the United Soybean Board’s 2004–2005, 25% of Americans consumed soy foods or beverages at least once per week, and 74% viewed soy products as healthy.

Today, the promotion of soy is no longer existed, it may be results of discovery of adverse effects in single ingredient and animal studies, as intake of soy is associated to induce risk of certain mammary cancers and infertility. The publication of the result have drawn many criticisms. According to Thomas Badger, director and senior investigator at the Arkansas Children’s Nutrition Center in Little Rock, these effects are seen only under certain experimental conditions that are not likely to occur in humans—and therein lies the crux of the debate(a). Equol (4',7-isoflavandiol), an isoflavandiol metabolized from daidzein may be the causes, as 90% of Eastern population are equol producers but only 30% in the West.
The explanation of the positive effect of soy isoflavones in reduced risk of mammary cancers by  University of Goettingen may be interesting, as researchers said" Most importantly, there is dispute as to whether isoflavones derived from soy or red clover have negative, positive or any effect at all on the mammary gland or endometrium. It is beyond any doubt that soy products may have cancer preventing properties in a variety of organs including the mammary gland. However, these properties may only be exerted if the developing organ was under the influence of isoflavones during childhood and puberty".

Soybean is genus Glycine, the family Fabaceae, one of the legumes that contains twice as much protein per acre as any other major vegetable or grain crop, native to Southeast Asia. Now, it is grown worldwide with suitable climate for commercial profits.
Nutrients
1. Carbohydrates
2. Dietary fiber
3. Fat
4. Protein
5. Essential amino acid
6. Vitamin A
7. Vitamin B6
8. Vitamin B12
9. Vitamin C
10. Vitamin K
11. Calcium
12. Iron
13. Magnesium
14. Phosphorus
15. Potassium
16. Sodium
17. Zinc
18. Etc.
Phytochemicals
1. Isoflavones
2. Genistein
3. Saponins
4. Beta-sitosterol
5. Daidzein

I. Soy in Eastern population
A. The Japanese population
Japan, an island nation in the Pacific Ocean, lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south(1). According to Moriyama, Japanese women and men live longer and healthier than everyone else on Earth, it may be result of  healthier Japanese diet and lifestyle. According to the World Health Organization, the Japanese have an average of 75 years healthy living with disability-free, it may be due to average soy intake 10 to 70 times higher than in Western people(1a)(1b)
A.1. Soy and the risk of cerebral infarction (CI) and myocardial infarction (MI) in Japan population

The searching of the Keywords in PubMed, soy and heart diseases  and stroke in Japan found 3 studies, all showed the positive effect of soy in reduced risk heart disease and stroke.

Cerebral infarction (CI) is defined as a type of ischemic stroke due to blockage in the blood vessels supplying blood to the brain.
Myocardial infarction (MI) is also known as heart attack. It is defined as a condition of blood stop flowing properly to part of the heart as a result of not receiving enough oxygen.

According to National Cardiovascular Center, Japan, the studied 40,462 Japanese (40 to 59 years old, without cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline), yields interest results.
People who consume more soy are less likely to be current smokers but more likely to be hypertensive, with men are more likely to have diabetes mellitus. The frequency of soy intake was positively related to daily intake of rice, vegetables, fruits, fish, potassium, calcium, carbohydrate, polyunsaturated fatty acid, saturated fatty acid, fiber, and isoflavones for both sexes.

The study started in the 1990 with food-frequency questionnaire included 44 foods with 3 questions to assess soy, bean, and miso consumption. The 1995 follow-up questionnaire covered 147 foods with 8 questions on soy products.

The result is astonishing, during a follow-up period that averaged 12.5 years, 1230 strokes were documented, of which 1137 were confirmed through imaging or autopsy. eventhrough high isoflavone intake was associated with reduced risk of CI and MI in middle-aged Japanese subjects, but not in men and dietary isoflavones and may be beneficial to postmenopausal women for the prevention of ischemic CVD(2). Intake of miso soup showed to reduce risk of hypertension but did not contributed to ischemic CVD mortality in neither men or women.

Strong evidences of epidemiological studies from the East and West have shown that hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor in contribution to heart diseases, notably on intermediate end points(3)(4). Soy foods intake has been known to contain lowering cholesterol and blood pressure effects. According to the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, daily soy protein showed a significantly decreased serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides without significantly affecting serum HDL cholesterol concentrations.(4). But the study suggested that  the mechanism of reduced risk of cerebral infarction (CI) and myocardial infarction (MI) for postmenopausal Japanese women may  not be through reduction of lipid profile but through exposure to a large quantity of isoflavones, which act as estrogen agonist because estrogen receptors are not occupied with plasma estradiol in postmenopausal women.

In case of hypertension in the subject of study, although the disease have been shown to contribute to the early risk factor for the progression heat disease and stroke(6)(7)(8)(9). Consumption of soy has no effect in reduce risk of the development of cerebral infarction (CI) and myocardial infarction for people with  histories of hypertension and diabetes mellitus and medication use for hypercholesterolemia, even soy has shown effectively in reduced high blood pressure(12)

In support to the above, the dietary intervention study targeting female students by using cake containing soybean protein and isoflavone at the Mukogawa Women's University, 4 weeks dietary intake of soy protein found to reduce CHD risk among Japanese female students with a high plasma cholesterol level(10) and Dr. Nagata C. at the Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu, Japan, in the study of association between soy product intake and mortality from cancer and heart disease in Japan, suggested that soy foods intake showed a preventive role in against stomach cancer and heart disease death(11).

Dr. Yoshihiro Kokubo and the research team also acknowledged the limitation of the study such as ethic group, measurement errors with nutrient intake or  due to it self report, but insisted that nationwide annual health screenings may ease the self report concern.
 They also clarified that the result of the study of dietary intake of isoflavones, are not relevant to the association of isoflavone supplement use with ischemic CVD.

In deed, the effectiveness of soy isoflavone in reduced risk of  cerebral infarction (CI) and myocardial infarction in this case, yields some questions due to it ethnicity.
a. If soy is found to be effective in reduce risk of hypertension and hyperlipidemia, why it does not contribute to the reduce risk of cerebral infarction (CI) and myocardial infarction in men with histories of hypertension and diabetes mellitus and medication use for hypercholesterolemia.
Would the medication be the cause?  As epidemiological study insisted the lowering effect of blood pressure and cholesterol are associated to reduce risk heart disease and stroke.

b. Although soy isoflavone showed an effectiveness in reduce risk of cerebral infarction (CI) and myocardial infarction and mortality, would dietary with high in fruit and vegetable also best known for the reduce risk of heart disease and stroke be also taken into account?

c. The effectiveness of the study may only be true for equol producers population as 90% of subjects' study are equol producers?

d. Would the "Japanese Phenomenon" interfere with the study, as administration of isoflavone "inexperienced" women at the time of menopause, the phytoestrogens appear to share the same effects as estrogen used in classical preparations for hormone replacement therapy?


Ovarian Cysts And PCOS Elimination
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Permanently Eliminate All Types of Ovarian Cysts Within 2 Months


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References
(a) The Science of Soy: What Do We Really Know? by Julia R. Barrett
(b) Guideline for healthy soy intake(the Unite Soybean board)
(1) Japan, Wikipedia
(1a)  Erdman JW Jr. AHA Science Advisory: soy protein and cardiovascular disease: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the AHA. Circulation. 2000; 102: 2555–2559
(Soy protein and cardiovascular disease)
(1b) van der Schouw YT, Kreijkamp-Kaspers S, Peeters PH, Keinan-Boker L, Rimm EB, Grobbee DE. Prospective study on usual dietary phytoestrogen intake and cardiovascular disease risk in Western women. Circulation. 2005; 111: 465–471(Cardiovascular diseases in women)
(5) Soy intake and breast cancer risk: an evaluation based on a systematic review of epidemiologic evidence among the Japanese population by Nagata C1, Mizoue T, Tanaka K, Tsuji I, Tamakoshi A, Matsuo K, Wakai K, Inoue M, Tsugane S, Sasazuki S; Research Group for the Development and Evaluation of Cancer Prevention Strategies in Japan.(PubMed)
(6) Probiotic Beverage with Soy Isoflavone Consumption for Breast Cancer Prevention: A Case-control Study by Toi M1, Hirota S, Tomotaki A, Sato N, Hozumi Y, Anan K, Nagashima T, Tokuda Y, Masuda N, Ohsumi S, Ohno S, Takahashi M, Hayashi H, Yamamoto S, Ohashi Y.(PubMed)
(7) Associations of intakes of fat, dietary fiber, soy isoflavones, and alcohol with levels of sex hormones and prolactin in premenopausal Japanese women by Tsuji M1, Tamai Y, Wada K, Nakamura K, Hayashi M, Takeda N, Yasuda K, Nagata C.(PubMed)
(8) Plasma isoflavone level and subsequent risk of breast cancer among Japanese women: a nested case-control study from the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study group by Iwasaki M1, Inoue M, Otani T, Sasazuki S, Kurahashi N, Miura T, Yamamoto S, Tsugane S; Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study group.(PubMed)
(9) Isoflavones--safe food additives or dangerous drugs? by Wuttke W1, Jarry H, Seidlová-Wuttke D.(PubMed)
(10) Effect of a soybean product on serum lipid levels in female university students by Takahashi K1, Kamada Y, Hiraoka-Yamamoto J, Mori M, Nagata R, Hashimoto K, Aizawa T, Matsuda K, Kometani T, Ikeda K, Yamori Y.(PubMed)
(11) Ecological study of the association between soy product intake and mortality from cancer and heart disease in Japan by Nagata C.(PubMed)
(12) Association of blood pressure with intake of soy products and other food groups in Japanese men and women by Nagata C1, Shimizu H, Takami R, Hayashi M, Takeda N, Yasuda K.(PubMed)
(13) Effects of dietary intake of soy protein and isoflavones on cardiovascular disease risk factors in high risk, middle-aged men in Scotland by Sagara M1, Kanda T, NJelekera M, Teramoto T, Armitage L, Birt N, Birt C, Yamori Y.(PubMed)

Phytochemical Isothiocyanates and heart diseases

Dithiolthiones are phytochemicals in the class of Organosulfides, found abundantly in cruciferous vegetables, garden sorrel, horseradish, etc.

Beside cancer, heart disease kills more than 2,000 Americans everyday. Approximately 60 million Americans have heart disease.
There are many causes of heart diseases. Most of heart diseases are caused by high blood pressure contributes to hardening of the arteries. High levels of bad cholesterol (LDL) build up in the arteries as a result of uncontrolled diet with high levels of saturated fat and trans fat.
In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients, showed to improve AIDS-related heart dysfunction through inhibition of apoptosis by decreasing iNOS and Bax expression through suppression of NF-κB.(1). In ischemic injury of hearts patients, showed to inhibit reactive oxygen species mediators in exerting a toxic effect during ischemia-reperfusion through mitochondrial K(ATP) channels and antioxidant pathway(2). On ischaemia-reperfusion-induced cardiac injury. steamed broccoli  showed a superior cardioprotective properties over cooked broccoli, probably through through the redox signalling of sulphoraphane(3). the phytochemical also found to trduce risk of vascular disease due to aging by inhibiting oxidative stress (4).


Ovarian Cysts And PCOS Elimination
Holistic System In Existence That Will Show You How To
Permanently Eliminate All Types of Ovarian Cysts Within 2 Months


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References
(1) Isothiocyanates ameliorate the symptom of heart dysfunction and mortality in a murine AIDS model by inhibiting apoptosis in the left ventricle. by Ho JN1, Yoon HG, Park CS, Kim S, Jun W, Choue R, Lee J.(PubMed)
(2) Sulforaphane protects ischemic injury of hearts through antioxidant pathway and mitochondrial K(ATP) channels.by Piao CS1, Gao S, Lee GH, Kim do S, Park BH, Chae SW, Chae HJ, Kim SH.(PubMed)
(3) Comparison of the protective effects of steamed and cooked broccolis on ischaemia-reperfusion-induced cardiac injury. by Mukherjee S1, Lekli I, Ray D, Gangopadhyay H, Raychaudhuri U, Das DK.(PubMed)
(4) Crosstalk between Nrf2 and the proteasome: therapeutic potential of Nrf2 inducers in vascular disease and aging by Chapple SJ1, Siow RC, Mann GE.(PubMed)

Herbal Chamomile and cancer

Chamomile is also known as camomile, common name of many species daisy-like plants in the family Asteraceae. The herb has been used in traditional medicine as antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory constituents and to treat menstrual cramps and sleep disorders, reduce cramping and spastic pain in the bowels, relieve excessive gas and bloating in the intestine, etc.

Ingredients
Guaianolides matricarin and achillin, acetoxyachillin and leucodin (= desacetoxymatricarin), corresponding C-11 stereoisomers(a),(Z)-2-β-d-glucopyranosyloxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid (cis-GMCA), chlorogenic acid, (E)-2-β-d-glucopyranosyloxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid (trans-GMCA), quercetagetin-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-β-d-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-β-d-glucoside, chamaemeloside, apigenin 7-O-(6″-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranoside), apigenin] and one polyacetylene (tonghaosu)(b).

Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells growing and multiplying disordered and uncontrollable way in our body, have become progressively worse and damaged other healthy tissues, sometimes spreads to other organs in the body via lymph or blood and results may be in death.
According to the study by Dr. Srivastava JK and Dr.Gupta S. in cancer cells, chamomile extract showed to induce minimal growth inhibitory responses in normal cells, but significant decrease in cell viability was observed in various human cancer cell lines, through exhibition of its antiproliferative and apoptotic activities(1). The Harokopio University, study also indicated the effectiveness of chamomile in inhibition of epithelial colon cancer (HT29)  cell line probably through regulation of regulate nuclear factor-kappa B(2). The testing of biological activity of 20 essential oils (EOs) from herbal plants for theirs effectiveness in numbers of  cancer cell line, including human colon carcinoma, (HCT116), rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells, according to Kobe Gakuin University, chamomile showed a significant effects on both cancer cell growth and mast cell degranulation(3).


Ovarian Cysts And PCOS Elimination
Holistic System In Existence That Will Show You How To
Permanently Eliminate All Types of Ovarian Cysts Within 2 Months


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References
(1) Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of chamomile extract in various human cancer cells.

Srivastava JK1, Gupta S.(PubMed)
(2) Herbal infusions; their phenolic profile, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in HT29 and PC3 cells by Kogiannou DA1, Kalogeropoulos N, Kefalas P, Polissiou MG, Kaliora AC.(PubMed)
(3) Effects of essential oils from herbal plants and citrus fruits on DNA polymerase inhibitory, cancer cell growth inhibitory, antiallergic, and antioxidant activities by Mitoshi M1, Kuriyama I, Nakayama H, Miyazato H, Sugimoto K, Kobayashi Y, Jippo T, Kanazawa K, Yoshida H, Mizushina Y.(PubMed)

Asparagus ginger sesame cream soup

Recipe contributed by 125 Chinese recipes with Bill Jones and Stephen Wong

1 tbsp. vegetable oil
1 large onion, coarsely chopped
1 tbsp. minced ginger root
8 0z. asparagus trimmed and chopped
4 cups of chicken stock
1 cup of light(10%) cream
1 tbsp. lemon juice
1 tsp. sesame oil
salt and pepper to taste
2 tbsp. cornstarch dissolved in 4 tbsp. (610ml) water
Minced fresh herbs(chives, basil thyme, rosemary) to taste
1tbsp toasted sesame seeds
In a large saucepan, heat oil over medium-high heat for 30 seconds. Add onion and ginger root; cook until onion softens and begin to change color. Add asparagus and chicken stock; bring mixture to a boil. Reduce heat and simmer for 15 minutes or until the asparagus is cooked.
Removed saucepan from heat and allow to cool. Transfer mixture in batches to a blender or load processor and process until smooth
Pour soup through a strainer; pushing as much puree through the mesh as possible (use the back od a wooden spoon to squeeze out liquid). Return liquid to the saucepan, add cream and warm to a simmer. Add lemon juice, sesame oil, season with salt and pepper. Add dissolved cornstarch; bring soup top a boil, stirring constantly until thickened. garnish with herbs, asparagus cream (direction at below), if desired and toast sesame seeds.

For special finish garnish with asparagus cream. To make asparagus cream. Puree4 spears of cooked asparagus in food processor, then push through a strainer.  Measure the puree and mix an equal amount of sour cream. Place a spoon of mixture in the center of each serving and sprinkle with toast sesame seeds.


Ovarian Cysts And PCOS Elimination
Holistic System In Existence That Will Show You How To
Permanently Eliminate All Types of Ovarian Cysts Within 2 Months


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Thursday, 29 May 2014

Food therapy - Avocado

By Kyle J. Norton

Avocado is a commercially valuable fruit cultivated in tropical climates throughout the world. it is a green-skinned, pear-shaped fruit that ripens after harvesting and native to the Caribbean, Mexico, South America and Central America, belonging to the flowering plant family Lauraceae.
Nutrients
1. Vitamin K
2. Dietary fiber
3. Vitamin B6
4. Vitamin C
5. Folate
6. Copper
7. Potassium
8. Amino acid
9. Others
a) Vitamin A
b) Vitamin B1, B2, B3, B12
c) Vitamin D
d) Vitamin E
e) Carotenoid
f) Pantothenic acid
g) Calcium
h) Chromium
Chemical constituents
The fruit contains campesterol, high amounts of β-sitosterol (average 76.4 mg/100 g); fatty acids (approximately 60% monounsaturated, 20% saturated, and 20% unsaturated); high amounts of glutathione (27.7 mg/100 g); approximately 2% protein; 6–9% carbohydrates and sugars (glucose, fructose, d-mannoheptulose, a taloheptulose, and an alloheptulose); two bitter substances (1-acetoxy-2,4-dihydroxyheptadeca-16-ene and 1,2,4-trihydroxyheptadeca-16-ene); carnitine; proanthocyanidins; persenones A and B(a).

1. Avocado and leukemia
Hass avocados, the most common commercial avocado cultivars in the world, not only support the  cardiovascular health also process the properties in maintaining healthy weight  and healthy aging(1).
Endocarp, seed, whole seed, and leaf (0.1 mg/mL) extracts showed to inhibit leukemic cell profileration through an oxidative stress mechanism, according to the University of Antioquia(2)

References
(a) Leung's Encyclopedia of Natural Ingredients:Chemical Composition of Avocado
(1) Hass avocado composition and potential health effects by Dreher ML1, Davenport AJ.(PubMed)
(2) Pro-apoptotic effect of Persea americana var. Hass (avocado) on Jurkat lymphoblastic leukemia cells by Bonilla-Porras AR1, Salazar-Ospina A, Jimenez-Del-Rio M, Pereañez-Jimenez A, Velez-Pardo C.(PubMed)
(3)

2. Avocado and Cholesterol
Cholesterol is needed for our body to build cell walls, make hormones and vitamin D, and create bile salts that help you digest fat. However too much of it can be dangerous because cholesterol cannot dissolve in your blood. The special particle called lipoprotein moves this waxy, soft substance from place to place.
Avocado may be one of best fruit used to reduce the accumulation of bad cholesterol in the blood, as it process body fat lowering capacity. The fruit was also found to reduced risk of metabolic syndrome(1), including obesity(2) and cardiovascular diseases(3) According to Dr. Monika P, and Dr. Geetha A., hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of P. americana (HAEPA) in a  a period of 14 weeks rat study, showed a significantly decreased body mass index (BMI), total fat pad mass and adiposity index. Levels of reduced glutathione, adiponectin, mRNA expression of adiponectin were significant lower in rat in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD)(4). The study of the level of expression of adiponectin and PPAR-γ in rats, Persea americana (avocado) fruit extract enhanced the HAEPA exhibition of hypolipidemic activity probably by increasing the mRNA, which is RNA messenger expression of adiponectin, a protein with function in regulating glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown. and PPAR-γ, a protein with function in regulation of cellular metabolism (carbohydrate, lipid, protein), and tumorigenesis, which reduce the risk of hyperlipidemia and obesity(5). In support of the view of above, researchers at the Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education, suggested that consumption of 200 g/d of avocado within an energy-restricted diet does not compromise weight loss when substituted for 30 g of mixed dietary fat. Serum lipid concentrations, plasma fibrinogen, arterial compliance, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were not affected by weight loss or avocado intake(6).

References
(1) Avocado consumption is associated with better diet quality and nutrient intake, and lower metabolic syndrome risk in US adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2008 by Fulgoni VL 3rd1, Dreher M, Davenport AJ.(PubMed)
(2) Effect of Persea americana (avocado) fruit extract on the level of expression of adiponectin and PPAR-γ in rats subjected to experimental hyperlipidemia and obesity by Monika P, Geetha A.(PubMed)
(3) Avocado oil supplementation modifies cardiovascular risk profile markers in a rat model of sucrose-induced metabolic changes by Carvajal-Zarrabal O1, Nolasco-Hipolito C2, Aguilar-Uscanga MG3, Melo-Santiesteban G4, Hayward-Jones PM1, Barradas-Dermitz DM5.(PubMed)
(4) Effect of Persea americana (avocado) fruit extract on the level of expression of adiponectin and PPAR-γ in rats subjected to experimental hyperlipidemia and obesity by Monika P, Geetha A.(PubMed)
(5) Effect of Persea americana (avocado) fruit extract on the level of expression of adiponectin and PPAR-γ in rats subjected to experimental hyperlipidemia and obesity by Monika P, Geetha A.(PubMed)
(6) Substitution of high monounsaturated fatty acid avocado for mixed dietary fats during an energy-restricted diet: effects on weight loss, serum lipids, fibrinogen, and vascular function by Pieterse Z1, Jerling JC, Oosthuizen W, Kruger HS, Hanekom SM, Smuts CM, Schutte AE.(PubMed)

3. Avocado and Diabetes
Diabetes is defined as a condition caused by insufficient insulin entering the bloodstream to regulate the glucose. It is either caused by cells in pancreas dying off or receptor sites clogged up by fat and cholesterol. In some cases, diabetes is also caused by allergic reactions of cells in the immune system.

Extracts of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) ("Avocado") has been used in folk medicine to treat hypertension and lower blood glucose, but the underlined  mechanism is unknown. According to University of KwaZulu-Natal, in STZ-induced diabetic rats, the avocado extract may be used in diabetic management through its effectiveness in increased hepatic glycogen concentrations, decreased urine flow and electrolyte excretion rates, whilst subchronic treatment reduced plasma creatinine and urea concentrations(1). Other study suggested that consuming monounsaturated fatty acids in avocado in the diet of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus improves the lipid profile favorably, maintains an adequate glycemic control, and offers a good management alternative(2) and high-monounsaturated fat diet metabolited better in some aspects than the currently recommended diet for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)(3).


References
(1) Effects of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) ["Avocado"] ethanolic leaf extract on blood glucose and kidney function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and on kidney cell lines of the proximal (LLCPK1) and distal tubules (MDBK), by Gondwe M1, Kamadyaapa DR, Tufts MA, Chuturgoon AA, Ojewole JA, Musabayane CT.(PubMed)
(2) Effect of a high-monounsaturated fat diet enriched with avocado in NIDDM patients by Lerman-Garber I1, Ichazo-Cerro S, Zamora-González J, Cardoso-Saldaña G, Posadas-Romero C.(PubMed)
(3) The high-monounsaturated fat diet as a practical alternative for NIDDM by Campbell LV1, Marmot PE, Dyer JA, Borkman M, Storlien LH.(PubMed)

4. Avocado and Cardiovascular disease
Heart diseases are caused by high blood pressure that contributes to hardening of the arteries. High levels of bad cholesterol (LDL) building up in the arteries as a result of uncontrolled diet with high levels of saturated fat and trans fat.
In animal study,  Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) aqueous leaf extract (PAE) showed a significant effect in reduced risk and treatment of heart diseases through its hypotensive (antihypertensive) effects(1). According to Nutrition Science Solutions LLC, consumption of one-half an avocado (68 g), not only provided many nutrients for body needed, but also supported cardiovascular health(2).
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2008, suggested that avocado consumption is associated with improved overall diet quality, nutrient intake, and reduced risk of metabolic syndrome(3), including cardiovascular disease.

References
(1) Cardiovascular effects of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (avocado) aqueous leaf extract in experimental animals by Ojewole JA1, Kamadyaapa DR, Gondwe MM, Moodley K, Musabayane CT.(PubMed)
(2) Hass avocado composition and potential health effects by Dreher ML1, Davenport AJ.(PubMed)
(3) Avocado consumption is associated with better diet quality and nutrient intake, and lower metabolic syndrome risk in US adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2008 by Fulgoni VL 3rd1, Dreher M, Davenport AJ.(PubMed)

5. Avocado and Anti inflammatory effect
The immune system is the set of cells and their activity against antigens or infectious agents that comprises of the body's defense system against diseases. The immune system does a great job of keeping people healthy and preventing infections. Beside foods and nutritional supplements, herbs also play a important role in helping the immune system defend against viruses and bacteria attacks.
In UV-induced damage in skin cells, the unique lipid molecules, polyhydroxylated fatty alcohols (PFA), extracted from avocado, showed to reduce UVB-induced damage and inflammation in skin. Application of the extract  prior to their exposure to UVB enhanced a protective effect, increased cell viability, decreased the secretion of IL-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine. and PGE(2) in mediated the inflammation process , and DNA repair(1).
Avocado soybean unsaponifiables (ASU)supplement, when applied alone, exhibited pain-reducing and anti-inflammatory effects, through suppressing TNF-alpha, a pleiotropic inflammatory cytokine, IL-1beta which plays a central role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses, COX-2 which  involved in the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2, iNOS gene expression which involved in immune response, and prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide production in articular chondrocytes and monocyte/macrophages(3). When used combination with epigallocatechin gallate, in the study by Nutramax Laboratories, Avocado soybean unsaponifiables (ASU)supplement demonstrated a significantly anti-inflammatory activity and may offer an attractive supplement or alternative to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the management of osteoarthritis(2).

References
(1) Polyhydroxylated fatty alcohols derived from avocado suppress inflammatory response and provide non-sunscreen protection against UV-induced damage in skin cells by Rosenblat G1, Meretski S, Segal J, Tarshis M, Schroeder A, Zanin-Zhorov A, Lion G, Ingber A, Hochberg M.(PubMed)
(2) Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production in chondrocytes by avocado soybean unsaponifiables and epigallocatechin gallate by Heinecke LF1, Grzanna MW, Au AY, Mochal CA, Rashmir-Raven A, Frondoza CG.(PubMed)
(3) Avocado soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) suppress TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, COX-2, iNOS gene expression, and prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide production in articular chondrocytes and monocyte/macrophages by Au RY1, Al-Talib TK, Au AY, Phan PV, Frondoza CG.(PubMed)

6. Avocado and as Antioxidant
Free radicals are atoms, molecules, or ions with unpaired electrons through chemical bonds with other atoms or molecules during a chemical reaction. They may have positive, negative or zero charge. The unpaired electrons cause radicals to be highly chemically reactive in the human body, leading to aging and cancers.
eEthyl acetate, containing 70% acetone, and 70% methanol extracts of the peel, pulp, and seed from two avocado (Persea americana Mill) exerted its antioxidant activity in vitro against microbial pathogens,  including Gram-positive bacteria through inhibition of oxidative stress(1). the Tecnológico de Monterrey-Campus Monterrey suggested that avocado pulp may sever as a novel lipophilic antioxidants in a food matrix due to the presence of acetogenins(2), a class of polyketide natural products found in plants. The University of California in the study of the effect of harvest date on nutritional compounds and antioxidant activity (AOC) in avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) fruit , suggested that AOC in early harvested fruit after storage for 35 days was much higher than that in late harvested fruit after storage for 21 days(3).

References
(1) Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) phenolics, in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and inhibition of lipid and protein oxidation in porcine patties by Rodríguez-Carpena JG1, Morcuende D, Andrade MJ, Kylli P, Estévez M.(PubMed)
(2) Activity-guided identification of acetogenins as novel lipophilic antioxidants present in avocado pulp (Persea americana) by Rodríguez-Sánchez D1, Silva-Platas C, Rojo RP, García N, Cisneros-Zevallos L, García-Rivas G, Hernández-Brenes C.(PubMed)
(3) Effect of harvest date on the nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity in 'Hass' avocado during storage by Wang M1, Zheng Y, Khuong T, Lovatt CJ.(PubMed)


8. Avocado and osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis is a group of diseases involved progressive denegation of joints, including articular cartilage and subchondral bone.
Avocado/soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) supplement, in the searching for randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials of ASU, suggested that ASU improved the symptoms of OA, with only real long-term trial yielded a largely negative result, according to Dr. Ernst E.(1). The Frederiksberg Hospital in the study of the same, with 664 OA patients with either hip (41.4%) or knee (58.6%) suggested that the 3 months, Avocado/soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) supported better chances of success in patients with knee OA than in those with hip OA(2). Other study also found a significantly effective of the supplement ASU in reduced the progression of joint space loss as compared with placebo in the subgroup of patients with advanced joint space narrowing, but require confirmation in a larger placebo-controlled study in hip OA(3).

References
(1) Avocado-soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) for osteoarthritis - a systematic review by Ernst E.(PubMed)
(2) Symptomatic efficacy of avocado-soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) in osteoarthritis (OA) patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials by Christensen R1, Bartels EM, Astrup A, Bliddal H.(PubMed)
(3) Structural effect of avocado/soybean unsaponifiables on joint space loss in osteoarthritis of the hip by Lequesne M1, Maheu E, Cadet C, Dreiser RL.(PubMed)

9. Avocado and Prostate Cancer
Intake of dietary MUFA from whole fruit of avocado are associated to reduced risk of prostate cancer, The new study at the University of the West Indies suggested(1). In support of the above, the University of California suggested that the anti prostate cancer effect are not as result of a single ingredient such as related carotenoids (zeaxanthin, alpha-carotene, and beta-carotene), lutein but the interaction of all ingredients in the whole fruit conbination with other det-derived phytochemicals through cell cycle arrest and  G(2)/M cell cycle arrest accompanied by an increase in p27 protein in controlling the cell cycle progression at G1 in incubation of PC-3 cells(3). The Purdue University study in the evaluation of the anti cancers effect of avocado also showed  a positive effect of the whole fruit in inhibition of six human tumor cell lines in culture, including human prostate adenocarcinoma (PC-3) cells(4).

References
(a) Leung's Encyclopedia of Natural Ingredients:Chemical Composition of Avocado
(1) Associations of whole-blood fatty acids and dietary intakes with prostate cancer in Jamaica by Jackson MD1, Walker SP, Simpson-Smith CM, Lindsay CM, Smith G, McFarlane-Anderson N, Bennett FI, Coard KC, Aiken WD, Tulloch T, Paul TJ, Wan RL.(PubMed)
(2) Inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth by an avocado extract: role of lipid-soluble bioactive substances. by Lu QY1, Arteaga JR, Zhang Q, Huerta S, Go VL, Heber D.(PubMed)
(3) Cytotoxic and insecticidal constituents of the unripe fruit of Persea americana by Oberlies NH1, Rogers LL, Martin JM, McLaughlin JL.(PubMed)

10. Avocado and Breast cancer
Persin, the toxin chemical compound found in the fruits and leaves of avocado showed to inhibit human breast cancer cell line, in the testing of synthetic analogues of the avocado-produced toxin persin(1). In support to the above, researchers at the Gavan institution, suggested that persin could be given together with commonly used breast cancer drugs like tamoxifen, which seem to act in a different way, but patients would benefit by needing smaller amounts of each type of medicine. Indeed, in the laboratory, persin and tamoxifen look to be a good combination(2). Other member of Persea, Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm  from the same genus with avocado, in  the Lauraceae family and widely distributed in Southeast Asia, in the testing against MCF-7 Cells showed that its bark methanolic crude extract (PDM) found to inhibit cell cycle arrest and subsequently induced apoptosis through increased the expression of the proapoptotic molecule, Bax(pro-apoptosis), but decreased the expression of prosurvival proteins, Bcl-2 (pro-apoptotic oranti-apoptotic) and Bcl-xL(pro- and anti-survival protein) in a dose-dependent manner(3).


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References
(a) Leung's Encyclopedia of Natural Ingredients:Chemical Composition of Avocado
(1) Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of analogues of avocado-produced toxin (+)-(R)-persin in human breast cancer cells by Brooke DG1, Shelley EJ, Roberts CG, Denny WA, Sutherland RL, Butt AJ.(PubMed)
(2) Persin - the avocado toxin that kills breast cancer cells(Gavan Institution)
(3) Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm Bark Crude Extract Induces Apoptosis in MCF-7 Cells via G0/G1 Cell Cycle Arrest, Bcl-2/Bax/Bcl-xl Signaling Pathways, and ROS Generation by Narrima P1, Paydar M1, Looi CY1, Wong YL1, Taha H2, Wong WF3, Ali Mohd M1, Hadi AH(PubMed)

11. Avocado and Skin health
In a in growing rats fed diets containing 10% (w/w) of the tested oils, showed to increased soluble collagen content due to a result of a consequence of the inhibition of lysyl oxidase activity(1). On wound healing in rats, after  the 14th day of treatment with 50% SSFAO or avocado oil containing rich source of oleic acid and essential fatty acids, exhibited a significant increase in percentage wound contraction and reepithelialisation(2). In Exposing skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, unique lipid molecules, polyhydroxylated fatty alcohols (PFA), extracted from avocado, reduced significantly UV-induced cellular damage, through increasing cell viability, decreased the secretion of IL-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine. and PGE(2) in mediated the inflammation process(3).

References
(1) The effect of various avocado oils on skin collagen metabolism by Werman MJ1, Mokady S, Nimni ME, Neeman I.(PubMed)
(2) Effect of semisolid formulation of persea americana mill (avocado) oil on wound healing in rats by de Oliveira AP1, Franco Ede S, Rodrigues Barreto R, Cordeiro DP, de Melo RG, de Aquino CM, E Silva AA, de Medeiros PL, da Silva TG, Góes AJ, Maia MB.(PubMed)
(3) Polyhydroxylated fatty alcohols derived from avocado suppress inflammatory response and provide non-sunscreen protection against UV-induced damage in skin cells by Rosenblat G1, Meretski S, Segal J, Tarshis M, Schroeder A, Zanin-Zhorov A, Lion G, Ingber A, Hochberg M.(PubMed)


Side effects
1. Skin product of avocado oils may contain latex which can cause skin side effect in certain people with hypersensitivity to latex, leading to symptoms of reddening of the skin, itching, hives, or eczema.
2. Liver damage
Certain types of avocado may cause liver damage as a result of collagen accumulation in the liver
3. Breastfeeding
Some types of Avocado may be unsafe during breastfeeding as it can cause problems of upset stomachs in babies.
4. Drugs
Avocado may decrease the effect of "blood thinning" or anti-inflammatory medications.
5. It may cause symptoms of gastrointestinal irritation, vomiting, diarrhoea, respiratory distress, congestion, fluid accumulation due to toxic fatty acid derivative, Persin.
6. Etc.

Food Therapy - Eggplant and cancer

Eggplant is a species of S. melongena, belonging to the family Solanaceae and native to India. The plant has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory. It is famous with its deeply purple and the best eggplant can be found from August through October when it is in season.

Nutritional Supplements
1. Carbohydrates
2. Sugars
3. Fiber
4. Fat
5. Protein
6. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
7. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
8. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
9. Pantothenic acid (B5)
10. Vitamin B6
11. Folate (Vitamin B9)
12. Vitamin C
13. Tryptophan
14. Manganese
15. Calcium
16. Copper
17. Iron
18. Magnesium
19. Phosphorus
20. Potassium
21. Zinc
22. Etc.

Chemical constituents
The vegetable chemical compounds containing include sterols (i.e. typical plant sterols, androstane, pregnane and cholestane derivatives, steroidal alkaloids and sapogenins), phytosterols, triterpenes, δ-amyrin, Chlorogenic acid, Nasunin and other Polyphenolic compounds.

Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells growing and multiplying disordered and uncontrollable way in our body, have become progressively worse and damaged other healthy tissues, sometimes spreads to other organs in the body via lymph or blood and results may be in death.
The study of antiproliferative activities against human colon (HT29) and liver (HepG2) cancer cells conducted by Yeungnam University, the eggplant glycoalkaloids solamargine showed to inhibit both cancer cell lines but greater in colon cancer cell line(1). In human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cell, delphinidin, a flavonoid pigment contained in the peel of eggplant, slightly inhibited tumor cell invasiveness probably through slight inhibition of the activity of MMPs(secretes matrix metalloproteinase)(2). According to Dr. Shimada A. in an one year (continuous 2 days for 12 months) food surveys held at 5 areas in Japan, the frequency of intake eggplant may associate to increase risk of gastric cancer and gastric cancer mortality rate(3), but may account partly for the geographic variation in gastric cancer mortality in Japan(4).

Ovarian Cysts And PCOS Elimination
Holistic System In Existence That Will Show You How To
Permanently Eliminate All Types of Ovarian Cysts Within 2 Months


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References
(1) Glycoalkaloids and metabolites inhibit the growth of human colon (HT29) and liver (HepG2) cancer cells by Lee KR1, Kozukue N, Han JS, Park JH, Chang EY, Baek EJ, Chang JS, Friedman M.(PubMed)
(2) Inhibitory effect of delphinidin from Solanum melongena on human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 invasiveness in vitro by Nagase H1, Sasaki K, Kito H, Haga A, Sato T.(PubMed)
(3) [Regional differences in gastric cancer mortality and eating habits of people].[Article in Japanese] by Shimada A.(PubMed)
(4) Food consumption and gastric cancer mortality in five regions of Japan by Tsubono Y1, Kobayashi M, Tsugane S.(PubMed)

Phytochemical Isothiocyanates as Antioxidants

Dithiolthiones are phytochemicals in the class of Organosulfides, found abundantly in cruciferous vegetables, garden sorrel, horseradish, etc.
Free radicals are atoms, molecules, or ions with unpaired electrons through chemical bonds with other atoms or molecules during a chemical reaction. They may have positive, negative or zero charge. The unpaired electrons cause radicals to be highly chemically reactive in the human body, leading to aging and cancers.
In Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD), an oxidative stress disorder, treatment with Sulforaphane, a molecule within the isothiocyanate group, decreased CEC apoptosis by 55% in unstressed group and by 43% in tBHP-treated specimens, through inhibition of oxidative stress(1).
The Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto study also indicated the similar result of sulforaphane in improvement of antioxidant status in the testing of number of cancer cell lines(2). Other study suggested that isothiocyanates (ITCs), found abundantly in cruciferous vegetables, may be effective as a cancer chemopreventive agent through modulation of phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzyme activities(3).

Ovarian Cysts And PCOS Elimination
Holistic System In Existence That Will Show You How To
Permanently Eliminate All Types of Ovarian Cysts Within 2 Months


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Reference
(1) Sulforaphane decreases endothelial cell apoptosis in fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy: a novel treatment by Ziaei A1, Schmedt T, Chen Y, Jurkunas UV.(PubMed)
(2) The anti-oxidant properties of isothiocyanates: a review by de Figueiredo SM1, Filho SA, Nogueira-Machado JA, Caligiorne RB.(PubMed)
(3) Structural influence of isothiocyanates on the antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression by Prawan A1, Keum YS, Khor TO, Yu S, Nair S, Li W, Hu L, Kong AN.(PubMed)

Egg drop soup with Minced Beef and Cilantro

Recipe contributed by 125 Chinese recipes with Bill Jones and Stephen Wong

6oz. lean ground beef
1/2 tsp. salt
2 tsp. soya sauce
1 tpsp. dry sherry or Chinese Shaoxing wine
2 tsp. minced ginger root
3tbsp. cornstarch divided
3 cups chicken stock
2 large eggs beaten
1 cup cilantro leaves, coarsely chopped
salt and fresh ground white pepper to taste
1. Ina small bowl, combine beef, salt, soya sauce, sherry, ginger root and 1tbsp of the cornstarch. Mix well and set aside to marinate for 20 minutes
In a large saucepan or soup pot, bring chicken stock to a boil. Add beef mixture, a little at a time, stirring to loosen the particles; cook for 2 minutes
Dissolve remaining cornstarch in 2tbsp. water; stir mixture into soup. Return to a boil; stirring until soup is slightly thicken. In a slow stream, pour egg into soup, stirring vigorously; cook until eggs are set, about 30 seconds. Stir in cilantro. Season to taste with salt and pepper. Serve immediately.


Ovarian Cysts And PCOS Elimination
Holistic System In Existence That Will Show You How To
Permanently Eliminate All Types of Ovarian Cysts Within 2 Months


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