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Monday, 31 March 2014

Skin aging in Herbs points of view

 By Kyle J. Norton

What cause aging? The question has been asked throughout the human history, but it doesn't seem to get any answer but raises many more unanswered questions. While many theories try to answer the question by related aging to tear and wear of the body, others deal with how the organs and systems in the body develop and deteriorate overtime, etc.

Skin aging is one of most visible process which occurs constantly in our skin organ. According to the Clinical Centre of Nis, certain plant extracts may have the ability to scavenge free radicals, to protect the skin matrix through the inhibition of enzymatic degradation, or to promote collagen synthesis in the skin,  affected skin elasticity and tightness(a). Other suggested that free radicals induced domino effects in production of reactive oxygen species, can react with DNA, proteins, and fatty acids, causing oxidative damage and impairment of antioxidant system, leading  injuries damage regulation pathways of skin,  including wrinkles, roughness, appearance of fine lines, lack of elasticity, and de- or hyperpigmentation marks(b).
The degradation of the epidermal and dermal layers of the extracellular matrix (ECM), the non-cellular component present within all tissues and organs, such as UV Exposure, decline of lysosomal/endosomal cathepsin K, S and V activity(c) as well as some environmental factors on skin produces visible signs such as irregular dryness, dark/light pigmentation, sallowness, severe atrophy, telangiectases, premalignant lesions, laxity, leathery appearance and deep wrinkling, etc.,  cause modification of the surface of skin and the physical properties of that lead to skin aging.
Certain chemical ingredients, such as aloin, ginsenoside, curcumin, epicatechin, asiaticoside, ziyuglycoside I, magnolol, gallic acid, hydroxychavicol, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, etc.  derived from herbs have been found to be intergraded  into some cosmetic products in treating premature aging(d)

1. Aloe vera
Aloe Vera is species of succulent plant in the genus Aloe, belonging to the Family Xanthorrhoeaceae, native to Sudan. It has become very popular for commercial cultivation due to its health benefits. Aloe vera has been used in herbal medicine in treating many kinds of disease, including wound, burn healing, minor skin infections, sebaceous cysts, diabetes, and elevated of cholesterol, etc. It is also one of many popular herb studied in scientific ways with some conflicted results.
In a study of a total of 30 healthy female subjects over the age of 45 recruited and received 2 different doses (low-dose: 1,200 mg/d, high-dose: 3,600 mg/d) of aloe vera gel supplementation for 90 days, aloe gel significantly improved wrinkles and elasticity in photoaged human skin, with an increase in collagen production in the photoprotected skin and a decrease in the collagen-degrading MMP-1 gene expression(1). In skin condition in the elderly caused by several incurable, but treatable, chronic diseases, researchers suggested that the use of lanolin, aloe vera, and parabens may contribute to  delayed hypersensitivity reaction and aging process(2). In photo aging, combination of sodium selenite and aloin in a certain range of concentration have shown protective effects against ultraviolet radiation induced fibroblast proliferation inhibition, oxidative injury, and decreased collagen synthesis(3).

2. Green tea
Green tea containing  more amount of antioxidants than any drinks or food with the same volume, is the leaves of Camellia sinensis, undergone minimal oxidation during processing, originated from China. Green tea has been a precious drink in traditional Chinese culture and used exceptional in socialization for more than 4000 thousand years. Because of their health benefits, they have been cultivated for commercial purposes all over the world.
Oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a major role in skin aging. Green tea extracted showed to inhibit the toxic ROS-induced skin death, through protection from H(2)O(2)-induced necrosis in a dose-dependent manner(4)(4a), improvement of the anti-wrinkle effects, through its antioxidant activity(5),  skin roughness, through moisturizing effects and enhancement of skin microrelief(6) and inhibition of skin inflammation for managing allergic contact dermatitis without skin toxicity(7). Combination of topical application of green tea and lotus, exhibited an anti aging effect on skin roughness (SEr), scaliness (SEsc), smoothness (SEsm), and wrinkling (SEw)(8) and  composition of a formulation containing 20 % green tea extract and 5 % rose oil, exhibited a skin barrier function for maintaining skin hydration, and protecting against anti-aging process(9).

3. Ginseng

Ginseng is a slow-growing perennial plants with fleshy roots, the genus Panax, belonging to the family Araliaceae. Depending to the climate where it grows, ginseng can be classified mainly into Panax ginseng Asian ginseng (root), Red ginseng, wild ginseng, American ginseng (root). In vivo, Korean red ginseng showed to enhance extension of lifespan, increase resistance to most forms of disease, through regulation of organisms' metabolism(10), and reduce wrinkle formation through
inhibition of collagen degradation rather than increased collagen synthesis(11), protect against skin photodamage, through increasing the production of profilaggrin and filaggrin(12). Ginsenoside Rd, a chemical constituent of Ginseng also exerted its anti-oxidative effects through activation of  anti-oxidant enzymes and anti-inflammatory effects through down-regulation of NF-κB and the consequent expressional suppressions of iNOS and COX-2(13). On gene expression at the level of mRNAs and proteins in human skin cells, extracted from the roots of the Chinese herb Sanchi (Panax notoginseng, showed a significant positive effects against facial wrinkles and other symptoms of facial skin aging(14). In the study of red ginseng (RG) and fermented red ginseng (FRG) effects on aging skin, researchers at the Department of Food and Nutrition, Korea University found that FRG offers increased anti-wrinkle efficacy, whitening efficacy, and reduced toxicological potency compared to RG(15).
4. Turmeric
Turmeric is a perennial plant in the genus Curcuma, belonging to the family Zingiberaceae, native to tropical South Asia. The herb has been used in traditional medicine as anti-oxidant, hypoglycemic, colorant, antiseptic, wound healing agent, and to treat flatulence, bloating, and appetite loss, ulcers, eczema, inflammations, etc.
Curcumin, a major chemical compound found in turmeric, showed to have a protective effect against photo-damage on aging process(16). Antioxidantly, curcumin scavenged free radicals from skin cells, prevented trans-epidermal water loss, included a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 or higher contribute to protect skin from wrinkles, leading to glowing and healthy younger skin(17) and induced cellular stress responses in normal human skin fibroblasts through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway and redox signaling(18).
5. Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica)
Gotu Kola also known as centella, is a annual plant of the genus, belonging to the family Mackinlayaceae, native to India, Sri Lanka, northern Australia, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Melanesia, Papua New Guinea. The herb has been used in traditional medicine to treatnervous disorders, epilepsy, senility, premature aging, etc.
Asiatic acid, madecassic acid, asiaticoside and madecassoside, found in the titrated extract of Centella asiatica (TECA), showed to inhibit UVB-mediated damage in NHDFs through changes in the expression of specific miRNAs(19)(20). Preparation including asiaticoside found in Guto kota extract in a treatment of temporal periorbital wrinkles tested on 27 female volunteers by applied the cream twice a day to the region of interest for 12 weeks, showed a significant improvement of the periorbital wrinkles in majority of the volunteers(21). lipstick containing  asiaticoside also found to improve lip-wrinkle in in a double-blind placebo-controlled fashion of a total of 50 women(22). According to 1LVMH Recherché, asiaticoside also stimulated collagen secretion which is the major components of skin dermis(23).
6. Sanguisorba officinalis
Sanguisorba officinalis is a genus Sanguisorba, belonging to the family Rosaceae, native to throughout the cooler regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The herb has been used in folk medicine to stop bloody dysentery, nosebleeds, and topically to treat burns and insect bites.
Ziyuglycoside I isolated from a Sanguisorba officinalis root extract reduced skin aging through increased the expression of type I collagen in a dose-dependent manner(24). In chronic Ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiation causes of skin aging, the extract of Sanguisorba officinalis L. inhibited wrinkle formation, maintained skin elasticity, and inhibited the decrease of dermal elastic fiber linearity in the rat hind limb skin in a dose-dependent manner(25). 
7. Magnolia ovovata
Magnolia ovovata also known as Japanese Bigleaf Magnolia is the genus of Ovovata, belonging to the family Magnoliaceae, native to Japan. The herb has been used in traditional Chinese medicine
to treat various digestive problems, relieve stress, promote neuro-health, etc. According to
Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences , Magnolia ovovata extract inhibited
NF-kappaB mediated gene expression, thus preventing skin photoaging processes through
keratinocyte hyperproliferation and degradation of collagen fibers in mice skin(26)(27).

8. Rhus verniciflua (Toxicodendron vernicifluum)
Rhus verniciflua is a genus Toxicodendron, belonging to the family Anacardiaceae, native to China
and the Indian subcontinent. The herb has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat internal
parasites and stop bleeding.
Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS), a most common used herbal plant in herbal medicine with various
biological properties was found to be effective in free radical scavengers due to contained flavonoid
derivatives, including fustin, quercetin, butein, and sulfuretin(29) which may protect the skin from
ROS aging. The ioactive phenolics in detoxified Rhus verniciflua Stokes (DRVS), including Gallic
acid showed to protect skin from aging through its antioxidative properties and by down-regulating
MMP-1 expression(28) and inhibited the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM)(30).

9. Chamomile
Chamomile is also known as camomile, common name of many species daisy-like plants in the family
Asteraceae. The herb has been used in traditional medicine as antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory

constituents and to treat menstrual cramps and sleep disorders, reduce cramping and spastic pain in
the bowels, relieve excessive gas and bloating in the intestine, etc.
Chemical compounds bisabolol, silymarin, and ectoin found in chamomile and milk thistle may consist
the property to modulate the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced upregulation of ROS free radicals in
normal human skin fibroblasts(31). According to University of Copenhagen, oral administartion of
composition extract including chamomile improved skin lession of forehead, periocular and perioral
wrinkles, mottled pigmentation, laxity, sagging, under eye dark circles and overall apperance(32).

10. Cinnamon
Cinnamon is a spice derived from the inner bark of tree, native to South East Asia, of over 300 species
of the genus Cinnamomum, belonging to the family Lauraceae. The herb has been use in herbal and
traditional medicine as anti-fungal and bacteria level to improve reproductive organ, prevent flatulence
and intestinal cramping, treat indigestion, diarrhea, bad breath, headache, migraine, etc.

According to Osaka Prefecture University, Cinnamon inhibited the breakdown of collagenous networks with aging results in hypoactive changes in the skin, through up-regulated both mRNA and protein expression levels of type I collagen without cytotoxicity. Cinnamaldehyde, a major active component, significantly increased the phosphorylation levels of the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and its downstream signaling molecules such as insulin receptor substrate-1 and Erk1/2 in an IGF-I-independent manner(33).

 
11. Ginkgo biloba
Ginkgo biloba is oldest living tree species, genus Ginkgo, belonging to the family Ginkgoaceae, native to China, and from temperate zone to subtropical zone and some parts of north America. It Has been used in traditional herbal medicine in treating impotence, memory loss,respiratory diseases, circulatory disorders and deafness as well as preventing drunkenness, and bedwetting.
The study in the comparison of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), a mixture of tea and rooibos (Camellia sinensis and Aspalathus linearis) and soybean (Glycine soja) for their effects in potentiation in reduced skin wrinkle, showed that ginkgo biloba, is most effective in increased skin moisturization (27.88%) and smoothness (4.32%) and reduced roughness (0.4%) and wrinkles (4.63%)(34).

12. Rosemary Rosemary is a perennial herb with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves, the genus 

Rosmarinus,
belonging to the family Lamiaceae. Its fresh and dried leaves has been used frequently in traditional
Mediterranean cuisine and as flavor foods while barbecuing. Rosnary has been used in traditional
medicine as an antiseptic, antioxidant, and antispasmodic agent to treat circulatory problem, eczema,
rheumatism, muscle pain, etc.
Rosemary containing flavonoid compounds with phenolic structures may potentiate in reduced reactive
oxygen species and biologic macromolecules, to neutralize free radicals or initiate biological effects to
prevent skin damage(35). According to University of Catania, natural extract isolated from rosemary
leaves, showed to be effective in antiaging skin management due to its endogenous antioxidant
potential(36).

14. Grape seed extract
Grape Seed Extract is the commercial extracts from whole grape seeds that contains many
concentrations, including vitamin E, flavonoids, linoleic acid, oligomeric proanthocyanidins(OPCs),
etc..The herb has been used in traditional medicine as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory agents and to treat
 skin wounds with less scarring, allergies, macular degeneration, arthritis, enhance circulation of blood
 vessels, lower cholesterol, etc.
Grape seed extract may be beneficial in promoting youthful skin, cell health, elasticity, and flexibility
because of its antioxidant effect to bond with collagen(37).
According to Dr. Bojanowski K., grape seed extract may have a potential in anti-aging effects
throughout all skin compartments, including dermal and epidermal layers because of its induced signal
transduction pathways in facial hypodermis(38). In a study of a total of men from 35 to 60 years of age,
phototypes I to III, indictaed a positive effect in counteract skin photoaging, in daily application of
mixture containing lycopene, acerola extract, grape seed extract and Biomarine ComplexT(39).

15. Lavender Lavender is a flower plant of the genus Lavandula, belonging to the family Lamiaceae,
native to Asia. The herb has been used in traditional medicine to treat painful bruises and aches,
 to relieve various neuralgic pains, sprains, rheumatism, etc.
Suggestion of Lavender aromatherapy may potentiate to ease anxiety in patients undergoing minimally
invasive facial cosmetic procedures(40).
In photodegradation and photooxidation, chemical composition and bioactive properties of Lavandula
angustifolia Miller essential oil, used conjunction with bee oglue showed that bee glue expresses a
highly protected lavender oil secondary metabolites from degradation and also preserved their
antiradical properties, both in in vitro antioxidant assays and in cell oxidative damage evaluations(41).

16. Huang Qi (Radix astragali) Huang Qi or Bei Qi is also known as Astragalus root. The sweet herb
 has been used as diuretic agent and to lower blood pressure, increase blood pressure, lessens
proteinuria, improve endurance, protect liver function, regulate blood sugar, etc. as it tonifies Qi,
raises Yang, strengthens the Defensive-Qi and the Exterior, expels toxins, etc. by enhancing the
functions of lung and spleen channels.
The study of non-fermented (HQNB) and fermented preparations (HQB) of Radix astragali on
hyaluronic acid (HA) production in primary human skin cells, showed that HQB significantly
stimulated HA production in both cultured primary human epidermal keratinocytes and human dermal
fibroblasts and  increased the expression of hyaluronan synthase 3 and hyaluronan synthase 2 mRNA
in HaCaT cells and human fibroblasts, respectively in dose-dependent manners(42).

17. Puerariae Radix (Ge Gen)
Ge Gen is also known as Kudzuvine Root. The acrid, sweet and neutral herb has been used in TCM as
anti-arrhythmia, anti cancers, anti-oxidation, anti platelet coagulation, etc. and to lower blood sugar,
relax the blood vessels, improve memory, treat diarrhea, etc., as it raises Yang; clears Heat,
promotes generation of Body Fluids, etc., by enhancing the functions of spleen and stomach channels.
The study of the effect of Puerariae Radix (PR), a Chinese herb and a popular food in Asia in
Hyaluronic acid (HA) concentrations in the intercellular spaces of the epidermis and the
connective tissues of the dermis, showed to stimulate the HA production of normal human epidermal
keratinocytes (NHEK), in dose-dependent, due to its rich in isoflavone glycosides like genistin and
daidzin(43).

20. Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah) Labisia pumila is the henus Lobisia, belonging to the family belongs

 to the family of Myrsinaceae
native to in Southeast Asia, particularly Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam.
In skin aging, phytochemicals found in the herbal extract of Labisia pumila, protected against
natural aging process and accelerated by UV radiation through promoting the production of skin
collagen 

synthesis(43) and attenuation of UVB-induced MMP-9 expression in phtoaging(44).

Taken altogether, certain herbs have been found to enhance the protection of skin against natural
aging through protection in the degradation of epidermal and dermal layers of the extracellular
matrix (ECM), via their antioxidant and stimulative effects. Futher studies are necessary to identify
 theirs effective ingredients to improve the clincal vadilation. As always all articles
written by Kyle J. Norton are for information & education only, please consult your Doctor & Related
field specialist before applying.



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References
(a) Skin ageing: natural weapons and strategies by Binic I1, Lazarevic V, Ljubenovic M, Mojsa J, Sokolovic D.(PubMed)
(b) Phytoconstituents as photoprotective novel cosmetic formulations by Saraf S1, Kaur CD.(PubMed)
(c) Differential expression of cathepsins K, S and V between young and aged Caucasian women skin epidermis by Sage J1, De Quéral D2, Leblanc-Noblesse E2, Kurfurst R2, Schnebert S2, Perrier E2, Nizard C2, Lalmanach G3, Lecaille F4.(PubMed)
(d) Bioactive compounds from natural resources against skin aging by Mukherjee PK1, Maity N, Nema NK, Sarkar BK.(PubMed)
(1) Dietary Aloe Vera Supplementation Improves Facial Wrinkles and Elasticity and It Increases the Type I Procollagen Gene Expression in Human Skin in vivo by Cho S1, Lee S, Lee MJ, Lee DH, Won CH, Kim SM, Chung JH.(PubMed)
(2) Dry skin in the elderly: complexities of a common problem by White-Chu EF1, Reddy M.(PubMed)
(3) [The protective effects of sodium selenite and aloin against ultraviolet A radiation].
[Article in Chinese]by Guo Y1, Ji R, Lü X, Wan YF, Jiang X.(PubMed)
(4) Green tea extract protects human skin fibroblasts from reactive oxygen species induced necrosis by Silverberg JI1, Jagdeo J, Patel M, Siegel D, Brody N.(PubMed)
(5) Tannase-converted green tea catechins and their anti-wrinkle activity in humans by Hong YH1, Jung EY, Shin KS, Yu KW, Chang UJ, Suh HJ.(PubMed)
(6) The use of green tea extract in cosmetic formulations: not only an antioxidant active ingredient by Gianeti MD1, Mercurio DG, Campos PM.(PubMed)
(7) Human skin safety test of green tea cell extracts in condition of allergic contact dermatitis by Kim HK1, Choi SY, Chang HK, Baek SY, Chung JO, Rha CS, Kim BJ, Kim MN.(PubMed)
(8) Combined topical application of lotus and green tea improves facial skin surface parameters by Mahmood T1, Akhtar N.(PubMed)
(9) Design and in vivo evaluation of emulgel formulations including green tea extract and rose oil by Yapar EA, Ynal O, Erdal MS.(PubMed)
(10) Korean Red Ginseng Tonic Extends Lifespan in D. melanogaster by Kim MS.(PubMed)
(11) Effects of red ginseng extract on UVB irradiation-induced skin aging in hairless mice by Kang TH1, Park HM, Kim YB, Kim H, Kim N, Do JH, Kang C, Cho Y, Kim SY.(PubMed)
(12) Enzyme-processed Korean Red Ginseng extracts protects against skin damage induced by UVB irradiation in hairless mice by Hwang E1, Sun ZW, Lee TH, Shin HS, Park SY, Lee DG, Cho BG, Sohn H, Kwon OW, Kim SY, Yi TH.(PubMed)
(13) Ginsenoside Rd inhibits the expressions of iNOS and COX-2 by suppressing NF-κB in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and mouse liver by Kim DH1, Chung JH, Yoon JS, Ha YM, Bae S, Lee EK, Jung KJ, Kim MS, Kim YJ, Kim MK, Chung HY.(PubMed)
(14) Hormesis-based anti-aging products: a case study of a novel cosmetic by Rattan SI1, Kryzch V, Schnebert S, Perrier E, Nizard C.(PubMed)
(15) Fermenting red ginseng enhances its safety and efficacy as a novel skin care anti-aging ingredient: in vitro and animal study by Lee HS1, Kim MR, Park Y, Park HJ, Chang UJ, Kim SY, Suh HJ.(PubMed)
(16) Inhibitory effect of encapsulated curcumin on ultraviolet-induced photoaging in mice by Agrawal R1, Kaur IP.(PubMed)
(17) Bioactive compounds from natural resources against skin aging by Mukherjee PK1, Maity N, Nema NK, Sarkar BK.(PubMed)
(18) Curcumin induces heme oxygenase-1 in normal human skin fibroblasts through redox signaling: relevance for anti-aging intervention by Lima CF1, Pereira-Wilson C, Rattan SI.(PubMed)
(19) Titrated extract of Centella asiatica provides a UVB protective effect by altering microRNA expression profiles in human dermal fibroblasts by An IS1, An S, Kang SM, Choe TB, Lee SN, Jang HH, Bae S.(PubMed)
(20) Centella asiatica protects against UVB-induced HaCaT keratinocyte damage through microRNA expression changes by An IS1, An S, Choe TΒ, Kang SΜ, Lee JH, Park IC, Jin YW, Lee SJ, Bae S.(PubMed)
(21) Evaluation of the effects of a preparation containing asiaticoside on periocular wrinkles of human volunteers by Lee J1, Jung E, Lee H, Seo Y, Koh J, Park D.(PubMed)
(22) Improving lip wrinkles: lipstick-related image analysis by Ryu JS1, Park SG, Kwak TJ, Chang MY, Park ME, Choi KH, Sung KH, Shin HJ, Lee CK, Kang YS, Yoon MS, Rang MJ, Kim SJ.(PubMed)
(23) [Comparative activity of asiaticoside and madecassoside on type I and III collagen synthesis by cultured human fibroblasts].[Article in French] by Bonté F1, Dumas M, Chaudagne C, Meybeck A.(PubMed)
(24) Anti-wrinkle activity of ziyuglycoside I isolated from a Sanguisorba officinalis root extract and its application as a cosmeceutical ingredient by Kim YH1, Chung CB, Kim JG, Ko KI, Park SH, Kim JH, Eom SY, Kim YS, Hwang YI, Kim KH.(PubMed)
(25) Inhibitory effect of an extract of Sanguisorba officinalis L. on ultraviolet-B-induced photodamage of rat skin by Tsukahara K1, Moriwaki S, Fujimura T, Takema Y.(PubMed)
(26) Magnolia ovovata extract and its active component magnolol prevent skin photoaging via inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB by Tanaka K1, Hasegawa J, Asamitsu K, Okamoto T.(PubMed)
(27) Protecting skin photoaging by NF-kappaB inhibitor by Tanaka K1, Asamitsu K, Uranishi H, Iddamalgoda A, Ito K, Kojima H, Okamoto T.(PubMed)
(28) Protective effect of detoxified Rhus verniciflua stokes on human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts against oxidative stress and identification of the bioactive phenolics by Liu CS1, Nam TG, Han MW, Ahn SM, Choi HS, Kim TY, Chun OK, Koo SI, Kim DO.(PubMed)
(29) Identification of Rhus verniciflua Stokes compounds that exhibit free radical scavenging and anti-apoptotic properties by Lee JC1, Lim KT, Jang YS.(PubMed)
(30) Bioactive compounds from natural resources against skin aging by Mukherjee PK1, Maity N, Nema NK, Sarkar BK.(PubMed)
(31) The active natural anti-oxidant properties of chamomile, milk thistle, and halophilic bacterial components in human skin in vitro by Mamalis A1, Nguyen DH, Brody N, Jagdeo J.(PnbMed)
(32) Effect of a novel dietary supplement on skin aging in post-menopausal women by Skovgaard GR1, Jensen AS, Sigler ML(PubMed)
(33) Cinnamon extract promotes type I collagen biosynthesis via activation of IGF-I signaling in human dermal fibroblasts by Takasao N1, Tsuji-Naito K, Ishikura S, Tamura A, Akagawa M.(PubMed)
(34) Clinical efficacy comparison of anti-wrinkle cosmetics containing herbal flavonoids by Chuarienthong P1, Lourith N, Leelapornpisid P.(PubMed)
(35) Green tea and the skin by Hsu S.(PubMed)
(36) Biochemical studies of a natural antioxidant isolated from rosemary and its application in cosmetic dermatology by Calabrese V1, Scapagnini G, Catalano C, Dinotta F, Geraci D, Morganti P.
(PubMed)
(37) enolics in grape seeds-biochemistry and functionality by Shi J1, Yu J, Pohorly JE, Kakuda Y.by (PubMed)
(38) Hypodermal delivery of cosmetic actives for improved facial skin morphology and functionality by Bojanowski K.(PubMed)
(39)Clinical, biometric and ultrasound assessment of the effects of daily use of a nutraceutical composed of lycopene, acerola extract, grape seed extract and Biomarine Complex in photoaged human skin by Costa A1, Lindmark L, Arruda LH, Assumpção EC, Ota FS, Pereira Mde O, Langen SS.(PubMed)
(40) Effects of lavender olfactory input on cosmetic procedures by Grunebaum LD1, Murdock J, Castanedo-Tardan MP, Baumann LS.(PubMed)
(41) Biochemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Lavandula angustifolia Miller Essential Oil are Shielded by Propolis Against UV Radiations by Angelo G1, Lorena C, Marta G, Antonella C.(PubMed)
(42) Stimulating effects of Bacillus subtilis natto-fermented Radix astragali on hyaluronic acid production in human skin cells by Hsu MF1, Chiang BH.(PubMed)
(43) Comparison of Puerariae Radix and its hydrolysate on stimulation of hyaluronic acid production in NHEK cells by Wen KC1, Lin SP, Yu CP, Chiang HM.(PubMed)
(44) eview on Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah): bioactive phytochemicals and skin collagen synthesis promoting herb by Chua LS1, Lee SY, Abdullah N, Sarmidi MR.(PubMed)
(45) Labisia pumila extract protects skin cells from photoaging caused by UVB irradiation by Choi HK1, Kim DH, Kim JW, Ngadiran S, Sarmidi MR, Park CS.(PubMed)

Herbal Cayenne and Breast cancer

Cayenne is also known as Cayenne Pepper, a red, hot chili pepper, belonging to Capsicum annuum, the family Solanaceae, native to sub-tropical and tropical regions. It has been used in traditional medicine to increases metabolism, enhance circulatory system and stomach and the intestinal tract, adjust blood pressure, lower LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, treat frostbite, muscles, arthritis, rheumatism, low back pain, strains, sprains, bruises and neuralgia, etc.
Breast cancer (malignant breast neoplasm) is a cancer that starts in the tissues of the breast either from the inner lining of milk ducts (Ductal carcinoma) or the lobules (Lobular carcinoma) that supply the ducts with milk. there is also rare cases that breast cancer starts in other areas of the breast. In 2010, over 250,000 new cases of breast cancer were expected to be diagnosed in women in the U.S. alone and the risk of getting invasive breast cancer during life time of a women is 1/8.

Ingredients
The chemical constituents of Cayenne include capsaicin,  capsacutin oil, solaine, xanthenes, oleic acid, palmitic acid, etc.

The benefits
Capsaicin found in red peppers of the genus Capsicum has been found to be effective in exerting its biological activities (anticarcinogenic, antimutagenic and chemopreventive) in many cancer cell lines. In breast cancer cell line MCF-7, treatment with capsaicin for 24 h resulted cells apoptosis in dose dependent manner through a caspase-independent pathway in MCF-7 cells. Other in the study of the same showed that Capsaicin extract extracts induced significant growth arrest and apoptosis in human breast and leukemia cancer cell lines in vitro with no significant effect on normal breast epithelial cells. These result suggested cayenne may be a potential agent in treating breast cancer.

The Side Effects
1. It may cause allergic reaction in young children
2. It may also cause hypertense response if overdosed.
3. It may promote symptoms of acute anal fissure.
4. It may cause burning sensation to certain people in the first taste
5. Do not use cayenne pepper in young children
6. Etc.




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References
(1) "Severe pepper allergy in a young child" by Gimenez L, Zacharisen M(PubMed))
(2) Mechanisms underlying the hypertensive response induced by capsaicin" by Dutta A, Deshpande SB.(PubMed)
(3) Consumption of red-hot chili pepper increases symptoms in patients with acute anal fissures" by Gupta PJ.(PubMed)
(4) Tumor cell growth inhibition is correlated with levels of capsaicin present in hot peppers by Dou D, Ahmad A, Yang H, Sarkar FH.(PubMed)(5) Capsaicin-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells through caspase-independent pathway by Chou CC, Wu YC, Wang YF, Chou MJ, Kuo SJ, Chen DR.(PubMed)

Cascara Sagrada (Rhamnus purshiana) and Ovarian cancer



Cascara sagrada is a species of buckthorn, genus Rhamnus, belonging to the family Rhamnaceae, native to western North America, it's bark has been used in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal support. and it is thought to have a laxative and natural cleansing, etc.
Ovarian cancer is defined as a condition of abnormal cells growth of ovarian cells as that have become cancerous. It is one of most common cancer in US, according to the statistics adapted from the American Cancer Society's publication, Cancer Facts & Figures 2010, an estimated 21,880 women in the United States will be diagnosed with ovarian cancer and 13,850 deaths


The Ingredients

The chemical constituents of Cascara Sagrada include Aloe-emodin, Anthrquinone glycosides (Barbaloin Cascarosides A, B, C and D ChrysaloinFrangul), Chrysophanol, Emodin, Heterodianthrones palmidin A, B, and C, dianthrones, Oxanthrone, Rhein, Tannins, etc.

The health benefits
Study in combined treatment of emodin and survivin-targeted shRNA (a sequence of RNA) with
sur-shRNA plasmid constructed and transfected into the ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3 and HO8910, showed positive effect of the shRNA specific for survivin effectively reduced the expression of survivin at the mRNA and protein levels in SKOV3 and HO8910 cells. Combination of emodin and shRNA-mediated knockdown of survivin significantly inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and suppressed invasion in SKOV3 and HO8910 cells. Other treatment with concentration of emodin alone or combined with paclitaxel, indicated an effective of emodin induced apoptosis alone at a high concentration and increased paclitaxel-induced apoptosis at a low concentration. These results suggested the possibility of an innovative chemotherapeutic strategy in treating drug resistant ovarian tumor.


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References
(1) The combined effect of survivin-targeted shRNA and emodin on the proliferation and invasion of ovarian cancer cells by Xue H, Chen Y, Cai X, Zhao L, He A, Guo K, Zheng X.(PubMed)
(2) Emodin sensitizes paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian cancer cells to paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in vitro by Li J, Liu P, Mao H, Wanga A, Zhang X.(PubMed)

Phytochemical allicin and anti microbial activity

Allicin is phytochemical containing sulfur in the class of organosulfur compound, found abundantly in onion and garlic.
The immune system is the set of cells and their activity against antigens or infectious agents that comprises of the body's defense system against diseases. The immune system does a great job of keeping people healthy and preventing infections. Beside foods and nutritional supplements, herbs also play a important role in helping the immune system defend against viruses and bacteria attacks.

The health benefits
Allicin, the chemical compound of garlic is found to show a positive effect against infectious diseases caused by Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In parasite study, allicin inetracted with thiol groups of various enzymes against some major human intestinal protozoan parasites such as Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia; and iv). In recent publication, garlic extract is found to contain a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against many genera of bacteria and fungi. There result indicated that garlic may play an important role in the ecological control of pathogenic microorganisms in nature.


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Holistic System In Existence That Will Show You How To
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References
(1) Antimicrobial properties of allicin from garlic by Ankri S, Mirelman D.(PubMed)
(2) Allium sativum (garlic)--a natural antibiotic by Adetumbi MA, Lau BH (PubMed)

Sunday, 30 March 2014

Benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH) in Vitamin E Points of View

Kyle J. Norton

Benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH) is defined as a condition of increased in the number of cells of prostate gland, causing partial, or sometimes virtually complete obstruction of the urinary tract. According to statistic, BPH commonly starts at age of 30 and symptoms usually can not be realized until age of 50. More than half of men between age of 60-70 are experience symptoms of BPH and only 10% are required treatment.
Vitamin E,  a fat soluble vitamin, consisting eight different variants (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol and alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienol) with varying levels of biological activity(2), found abundantly in corn oil, soybean oil, margarine, wheat germ oil, sunflower,safflower oils, etc. plays an important role in neurological functions and inhibition of platelet aggregation, regulation of enzymatic activity, free radical scavenger, etc..
Epidemiological studies, linking vitamin E in reduced risk and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia have not been consistent(1)(2)(3).
A composition, consisting cernitin, saw palmetto, B-sitosterol, vitamin E has shown to significantly reduce nocturia and frequency and diminish overall symptomatology of BPH, according to the Georgetown University Medical Center(4). Some researchers suggested that Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) may be associated to the long-term exposure of the prostate to the strong androgen 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) due to aging induced conversion of free testosterone. Food supplementation with extracts of Serenoa repens and a combination of the antioxidants selenium, (cis)-lycopene and natural vitamin E, together with fish oil rich in long-chain polyunsaturated essential fatty acids of the omega-3 group may be effective as pharmaceutical 5alpha-reductase inhibitors in partial androgen deficiency correct testosterone substitution(5). Vitamin E, as an antioxidant and free radical scavenger may be effective in reduced oxidative stress as patients with BPH were found with significant decrease in plasma alpha-Toc and Asc level(6)(7). Although diet and dietary supplement intervention appeared to slow BPH progression, over consumption of dietary supplements may be harmful(8).

Taken altogether, without going into reviews, vitamin E may be effective in reduced risk and treatment of patients with BPH. Over doses of vitamin E supplement can cause symptoms of blurred vision, weakness, dizziness, nausea, diarrhea, etc., please make sure you follow the guideline of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies.



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References
(1) Preventing diseases of the prostate in the elderly using hormones and nutriceuticals by Comhaire F1, Mahmoud A.(PubMed)
(2) Diet, micronutrients, and the prostate gland by Thomas JA.(PubMed)
(3) Intake of selected micronutrients and the risk of surgically treated benign prostatic hyperplasia: a case-control study from Italy by Tavani A1, Longoni E, Bosetti C, Maso LD, Polesel J, Montella M, Ramazzotti V, Negri E, Franceschi S, La Vecchia C.(PubMed)
(4) Randomized trial of a combination of natural products (cernitin, saw palmetto, B-sitosterol, vitamin E) on symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) by Preuss HG1, Marcusen C, Regan J, Klimberg IW, Welebir TA, Jones WA.(PubMed)
(5) Preventing diseases of the prostate in the elderly using hormones and nutriceuticals by Comhaire F1, Mahmoud A.(PubMed)
(6) Oxidative stress in benign prostate hyperplasia by Aryal M1, Pandeya A, Gautam N, Baral N, Lamsal M, Majhi S, Chandra L, Pandit R, Das BK(PubMed)
(7) Oxidative stress in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia by Aryal M1, Pandeya A, Bas BK, Lamsal M, Majhi S, Pandit R, Agrawal CS, Gautam N, Baral N.(PubMed)
(8) Diet and dietary supplement intervention appeared to slow disease progression by Sebastiano C1, Vincenzo F, Tommaso C, Giuseppe S, Marco R, Ivana C, Giorgio R, Massimo M, Giuseppe M.(PubMed)

Saturday, 29 March 2014

Benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH) in Vitamin D Points of View

Kyle J. Norton

Benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH) is defined as a condition of increased in the number of cells of prostate gland, causing partial, or sometimes virtually complete obstruction of the urinary tract. According to statistic, BPH commonly starts at age of 30 and symptoms usually can not be realized until age of 50. More than half of men between age of 60-70 are experience symptoms of BPH and only 10% are required treatment.
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble secosteroids found in small amount in few foods, including salmon, mackerel, sardines and tuna. The vitamin plays an important role in modulation of cellular proliferation, apoptosis induction, tumor growth suppression and promotion in absorption of minerals, including calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphate and zinc.
Epidemiological studies, focusing the use of dietary vitamin E in reduced risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH) have produced inconsistent results(a)(b).
1. Vitamin D receptor(VDR) and BPH
The study of 222 prostate cancer patients, 209 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients, 128 male controls who were over 60 years old and without any evidence of prostate cancer or BPH, and 198 female controls in Japanese men to exp;ore the genetic mutation of polymorphism in the VDR gene for risk of prostate cancer and BPH found the positive effect of  BsmI polymorphism in the VDR gene in protection against prostate cancer(1). Other study showed  rs731236(genetic) variant of the vitamin D receptor had a protective effect for LUTS, a common symptoms of men with BPH(2), and VDR Fok I polymorphisms(morphs of the phenotype) may be correlated with BPH complicated by histological prostatitis, the study of Graduate School, South Medical Universit showed(3). In Indian population, Taq-I(a restriction enzyme isolated from the bacterium Thermus aquaticus in 1978) and Bsm-I genetic variants of VDR gene influence susceptibility BPH(4). But in the study of polymorphims with functional significance in the Bsm, Apa 1 and Taq 1 genes were therefore compared in 28 prostate cancer (CaP), 44 benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and 30 control cases in Thailand, indicated no significant variation in distribution of these three groups. Of that suggested these variations in the distribution frequencies from country to country and depending to other factors such as sun exposure, dietary and other lifestyle factors(5).

2. The serum of Vitamin D
Some researchers suggested that serum of vitamin D may be an indication of early onset of benign prostatichyoerplasia BPH. According to the study by American Urological Association Education and Research, low levels of 25-OH vitamin D is associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia(6). But a study by Democritus University of Thrace showed no clear relationship between vitamin D and serum levels of PSA or-of f/t-PSA(free/total prostate specific antigen) in PD patients(7).
 
3. The effects
BPH(1). BXL-628. a vitamin D3 analog, showed to decrease prostate growth and BPH symptoms, through inhibition of cell migration and cytoskeleton(a cellular scaffolding or skeleton contained within a cell's cytoplasm) remodeling in altered bladder contractility associated with BPH-induced lower urinary tract symptoms(8). Elocalcitol, a vitamin D3 analog, reduced the static component of BPH by inhibiting the activity of intraprostatic growth factors downstream of the androgen receptor, by targeting the RhoA(regulation and timing of cell division)/ROCK(protein, RhoA, RhoC, and ROCK expression were related to poor tumor differentiation) and NF-kappaB(involved in cellular responses to stimuli such as stress, cytokines, free radicals, ultraviolet irradiation, oxidized LDL, and bacterial or viral antigens.) pathway(9). The New York University School of Medicine study showed increase intake of vitamin D impact an adverse correlation with decreased BPH prevalence(10). Another novel nonsecosteroidal VDR agonist (CH5036249) showed an cell growth inhibitory activity of CH5036249 to be comparable to that of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3(11). Other analogs, including BXL-353, may also be potential for patients with BPH(12).

Taken altogether, serum of vitamin D may not be realizable diagnosis in determination the early onset of BPH, and vitamin D analogs are associated to reduced risk and treatment of Benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH). As a;ways. all articles written by Kyle J. Norton are for information & education only, please consult your Doctor & Related field specialist before applying.


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References
(a) Dietary patterns, supplement use, and the risk of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia: results from the prostate cancer prevention trial by Kristal AR1, Arnold KB, Schenk JM, Neuhouser ML, Goodman P, Penson DF, Thompson IM.(PubMed)
(b) Dietary patterns, supplement use, and the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia by Poon KS1, McVary KT.(PubMed)
(c) Vitamin D and benign prostatic hyperplasia -- a review by Espinosa G1, Esposito R, Kazzazi A, Djavan B.(PubMed)
(1) Association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia in a Japanese population by Habuchi T1, Suzuki T, Sasaki R, Wang L, Sato K, Satoh S, Akao T, Tsuchiya N, Shimoda N, Wada Y, Koizumi A, Chihara J, Ogawa O, Kato T.(PubMed)
(2) Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Candidate Gene Association Studies of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Men by Cartwright R1, Mangera A2, Tikkinen KA3, Rajan P4, Pesonen J5, Kirby AC6, Thiagamoorthy G7, Ambrose C8, Gonzalez-Maffe J9, Bennett PR10, Palmer T11, Walley A12, Järvelin MR13, Khullar V14, Chapple C15(PubMed)
(3) [Relationship between vitamin D receptor gene Fok I polymorphisms and benign prostatic hyperplasia complicated by histological prostatitis].[Article in Chinese] by Ruan L1, Zhong WD, Li ZM, Hua X.(PubMed)
(4) Association of genetic variants of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene (Fok-I, Taq-I and Bsm-I) with susceptibility of benign prostatic hyperplasia in a North Indian population by Manchanda PK1, Konwar R, Nayak VL, Singh V, Bid HK.(PubMed)
(5) Lack of association of VDR polymorphisms with Thai prostate cancer as compared with benign prostate hyperplasia and controls by Chaimuangraj S1, Thammachoti R, Ongphiphadhanakul B, Thammavit W.(PubMed)
(6) Low 25-OH vitamin D is associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia by Haghsheno MA1, Mellström D, Behre CJ, Damber JE, Johansson H, Karlsson M, Lorentzon M, Peeker R, Barret-Connor E, Waern E, Sundh V, Ohlsson C, Hammarsten J.(PubMed)
(7) Serum levels of prostate-specific antigen and vitamin D in peritoneal dialysis patients by Passadakis P1, Ersoy F, Tam P, Memmos D, Siamopoulos K, Ozener C, Akçiçek F, Camsari T, Ates K, Ataman R, Vlachojannis J, Dombros N, Utas C, Akpolat T, Bozfakioglu S, Wu GG, Karayaylali I, Arinsoy T, Stathakis C, Yavuz M, Tsakiris D, Dimitriades A, Yilmaz ME, Gültekin M, Karayalçin B, Challa A, Polat N, Oreopoulos DG.(PubMed)

(8 BXL-628, a vitamin D receptor agonist effective in benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment, prevents RhoA activation and inhibits RhoA/Rho kinase signaling in rat and human bladder by Morelli A1, Vignozzi L, Filippi S, Vannelli GB, Ambrosini S, Mancina R, Crescioli C, Donati S, Fibbi B, Colli E, Adorini L, Maggi M.(PubMed)
(9) Vitamin D receptor agonists target static, dynamic, and inflammatory components of benign prostatic hyperplasia by Adorini L1, Penna G, Fibbi B, Maggi M.(PubMed)
(10) Vitamin D and benign prostatic hyperplasia -- a review by Espinosa G1, Esposito R, Kazzazi A, Djavan B.(PubMed)
(11) A novel nonsecosteroidal VDR agonist (CH5036249) exhibits efficacy in a spontaneous benign prostatic hyperplasia beagle model by Taniguchi K1, Katagiri K, Kashiwagi H, Harada S, Sugimoto Y, Shimizu Y, Arakawa H, Ito T, Yamazaki M, Watanabe T, Kato A, Hoshino E, Takahashi T, Esaki T, Suzuki M, Takeda S, Ichikawa F, Harada A, Sekiguchi N, Ishigai M, Kawata H, Yoneya T, Onuma E, Sudoh M, Aoki Y.(PubMed)
(12) Inhibition of spontaneous and androgen-induced prostate growth by a nonhypercalcemic calcitriol analog by Crescioli C1, Ferruzzi P, Caporali A, Mancina R, Comerci A, Muratori M, Scaltriti M, Vannelli GB, Smiroldo S, Mariani R, Villari D, Bettuzzi S, Serio M, Adorini L, Maggi M.(PubMed)

Friday, 28 March 2014

Benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH) in Vitamin A Points of View

Benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH) is defined as a condition of increased in the number of cells of prostate gland, causing partial, or sometimes virtually complete obstruction of the urinary tract. According to statistic, BPH commonly starts at age of 30 and symptoms usually can not be realized until age of 50. More than half of men between age of 60-70 are experience symptoms of BPH and only 10% are required treatment.

Vitamin A is a general term of Vitamin A Retinol, retinal, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, gamma-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin and best known for its functions for vision health and antioxidant scavenger and essential for growth and differentiation of a number of cells and tissues.
Recommended intakes of vitamin A, according to  the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (formerly National Academy of Sciences) is 600 µg daily as extremely high doses (>9000 mg) can be toxicity as causes of dry, scaly skin, fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite, bone and joint pains, headaches, etc.

1. Retinols
Vitamin A (retinol) and its derivatives, the retinoids concentration was 2-fold elevated in BPH compared with the tissues of normal prostate, and prostate carcinoma tissues of that may be an indication of role of retinoids in the physiology of the prostate and possibly also in the pathophysiology of prostate cancer(1). In human INSL3 in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), all-trans-retinoic acid showed to up-regulate LGR8 gene activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner while having no effect on INSL3 gene activity(2). The study of the effects of 9-cis retinoic acid (9cRA) in suppressing prostate cell proliferation (PECP) and carcinogenesis in p27(Kip1) deficient mice, showed that 9cRA suppress prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) in all three p27(a cell cycle suppressor gene) genotypes through decreased suppress prostate cell proliferation (PECP) and increased cellular senescence(3).

2. Carotenoids(beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, gamma-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin) Carotenoids, plant pigments, converted to vitamin A after intake, play an important role in prevention and treatment of some diseases through its antioxidant effects. Dietary carotenoids risk of BPH and prostate cancer is associated to age and fat intake. The study of 100 patients with prostate cancer and two different control series [100 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients and 100 general hospital patients] showed a risk differentiation of  reduction by dietary beta-carotene and vitamin A was significant in the older men (70-79 years), but not in the younger men (50-69 years) with protective effect against prostate cancer related to the low overall fat intake in Japan(4). According to Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, consumption of fruit and vegetables rich in beta-carotene was inversely related to BPH(5)(6).
The Kyoto University study, in a case-control study of prostatic cancer and BPH, consisted of 100 patients with prostatic cancer, matched for hospital, age (+/- 3 yr) and hospital admission date (+/- 3 months) to patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and hospital controls indicated a correlation of daily intake of beta-carotene (RR = 2.13: 1.20-3.77), as compared with hospital controls, were significantly correlated with prostatic cancer development(7). Lower concentration of of carotenoids, may be an indication of disease progression rather than the systemic inflammatory response in patients with prostate cancer reported by the 1University Department of Surgery, Royal Infirmary(8). Unfortunately, according to Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, serum beta-carotene and smoking are associated to increased risk with the development of BPH(9).

Taken altogether, although controversial, vitamin A may be associated to reduced risk of BPH but further large sample size studies are necessary to clarify its effectiveness. Overdoses can lead to toxic symptoms. Please make sure you follow the guideline of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. As always, all articles written by Kyle J. Norton are for information & education only, please consult your Doctor & Related field specialist before applying.



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References
(1) Abnormal level of retinoic acid in prostate cancer tissues by Pasquali D1, Thaller C, Eichele G.(PubMed)
(2) INSL3 in the benign hyperplastic and neoplastic human prostate gland by Klonisch T1, Müller-Huesmann H, Riedel M, Kehlen A, Bialek J, Radestock Y, Holzhausen HJ, Steger K, Ludwig M, Weidner W, Hoang-Vu C, Hombach-Klonisch S.(PubMed)
(3) p27(Kip1) deficiency promotes prostate carcinogenesis but does not affect the efficacy of retinoids in suppressing the neoplastic process by Taylor W1, Mathias A, Ali A, Ke H, Stoynev N, Shilkaitis A, Green A, Kiyokawa H, Christov K.(PubMed)
(4) Dietary beta-carotene and cancer of the prostate: a case-control study in Kyoto, Japan by Ohno Y1, Yoshida O, Oishi K, Okada K, Yamabe H, Schroeder FH.(PubMed)
(5) Fruit and vegetable consumption, intake of micronutrients, and benign prostatic hyperplasia in US men. by Rohrmann S1, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, Platz EA.(PubMed)
(6) Intake of selected micronutrients and the risk of surgically treated benign prostatic hyperplasia: a case-control study from Italy by Tavani A1, Longoni E, Bosetti C, Maso LD, Polesel J, Montella M, Ramazzotti V, Negri E, Franceschi S, La Vecchia C.(PubMed)
(7) A case-control study of prostatic cancer with reference to dietary habits by Oishi K1, Okada K, Yoshida O, Yamabe H, Ohno Y, Hayes RB, Schroeder FH.(PubMed)
(8) Vitamin antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and the systemic inflammatory response in patients with prostate cancer by Almushatat AS1, Talwar D, McArdle PA, Williamson C, Sattar N, O'Reilly DS, Underwood MA, McMillan DC.(PubMed)
(9) [Epidemiological study on diet, smoking and alcohol drinking in the relationship to prostatic weight].[Article in Japanese] by Nukui M.(PubMed

Thursday, 27 March 2014

Benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH) in Vitamin C Points of View

Kyle J. Norton

Benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH) is defined as a condition of increased in the number of cells of prostate gland, causing partial, or sometimes virtually complete obstruction of the urinary tract. According to statistic, BPH commonly starts at age of 30 and symptoms usually can not be realized until age of 50. More than half of men between age of 60-70 are experience symptoms of BPH and only 10% are required treatment.

Vitamin C, also known as L-ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin, found in fresh fruits, berries and green vegetables. It is best known for its free radical scavengers activity and regenerating oxidized vitamin E for immune support.
Epidemiological studies linking dietary vitamin C in reduced risk of Benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH) may be inconclusive(a)(b)(c).

The study of Vitamin C supplementation for its effect of HIF-1alpha, highly expressed in hyperplasic prostates and prevents prostate cell death by Soul National University College of Medicine indicated that vitamin C effectively prevent prostate hyperplasia through its suppression on HIF-1alpha via prolyl hydroxylation(1). The study of phenol composition and antioxidant capacity of Epilobium species at the 1Semmelweis University, also support the role vitamin C in reduced risk of BHP through its radical-scavenger activity(2). Some researchers suggested that  free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced more with advancement of age, causing oxidative stress associated with BPH, due to significant decrease in plasma alpha-Toc and Asc level in BPH patients(3). The comparison of the effectiveness of  cimetidine 1 g/day for 4 weeks and 30 received vitamin C 1 g/day for the same period of a total of 60 patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) study, showed no significant difference between the 2 groups (mean urinary flow, subjective obstructive or irritative symptoms, or prostate size) but Cimetidine was found to be no more active than vitamin C in treating benign prostatic hypertrophy(4). Regardless how effective the supplements are, some researchers ruled out the use of supplements because over consumption can be harmful(5).



Ovarian Cysts And PCOS Elimination
Holistic System In Existence That Will Show You How To
Permanently Eliminate All Types of Ovarian Cysts Within 2 Months

Back to Researched articles - Points of view of Vitamins, Foods and Herbs
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References
(a) Fruit and vegetable consumption, intake of micronutrients, and benign prostatic hyperplasia in US men by Rohrmann S1, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, Platz EA.(PubMed)
(b) Intake of selected micronutrients and the risk of surgically treated benign prostatic hyperplasia: a case-control study from Italy by Tavani A1, Longoni E, Bosetti C, Maso LD, Polesel J, Montella M, Ramazzotti V, Negri E, Franceschi S, La Vecchia C.(PubMed)
(c) A case-control study of prostatic cancer with reference to dietary habits by Oishi K1, Okada K, Yoshida O, Yamabe H, Ohno Y, Hayes RB, Schroeder FH.(PubMed)
(1) Vitamin C supplementation prevents testosterone-induced hyperplasia of rat prostate by down-regulating HIF-1alpha by Li SH1, Ryu JH, Park SE, Cho YS, Park JW, Lee WJ, Chun YS.(PubMed)
(2) Polyphenol composition and antioxidant capacity of Epilobium species byHevesi Tóth B1, Blazics B, Kéry A.(PubMed)
(3) Oxidative stress in benign prostate hyperplasia by Aryal M1, Pandeya A, Gautam N, Baral N, Lamsal M, Majhi S, Chandra L, Pandit R, Das BK.(PubMed)
(4) Controlled study of cimetidine in the treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy by Lindner A1, Ramon J, Brooks ME.(PubMed)
(5) Dietary patterns and prostatic diseases by Sebastiano C1, Vincenzo F, Tommaso C, Giuseppe S, Marco R, Ivana C, Giorgio R, Massimo M, Giuseppe M.(PubMed)

Wednesday, 26 March 2014

Benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH) in Herbs Points of View

 Kyle J. Norton

Benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH) is defined as a condition of increased in the number of cells of prostate gland, causing partial, or sometimes virtually complete obstruction of the urinary tract. According to statistic, BPH commonly starts at age of 30 and symptoms usually can not be realized until age of 50. More than half of men between age of 60-70 are experience symptoms of BPH and only 10% are required treatment. Epidemiological studies, linking herbal medicine in reduced risk of benign prostate hyperplasia have produced certain positive results, but multi centers and large sample size studies are necessary to identify the principle ingredients to improve their validations.

1. Serenoa repens (Saw palmetto)
Saw Palmetto, is a small palm like tree of the genus in the genus Serenoa, belonging to the family, native to o southeastern North America. The herb has been used in The North American Seminole Indians for infertility, PMS, reproductive or urinary tract problems, urinary tract infections, stomach aches, indigestion and dysentery, etc. In rat study, a liposterolic extract of saw palmetto  showed to inhibited the contractions of prostate gland consistently with smooth muscle relaxant activity(1). In a total of 297 patients recruited, with 87 into the group TAM, 97 into the group SR and 81 into the group tamsulosin (TAM) + Serenoa repens (SR), SR and TAM treatment of BPH had showed to be efficacy as in alone, a combined therapy (TAM + SR) does not provide extra benefits(2). On the mRNA gene expression profiles of two representative models of BPH,  BPH1 cell line and primary stromal cells derived from BPH, lipidosterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr) significantly altered gene expression patterns, categorized as part of proliferative, apoptotic, and inflammatory pathways(3). Unfortunately, a meta-analysis of two high quality long-term trials (n = 582), conducted by the,  showed no effect of Sere noa repens, at double and triple doses, in improving urinary flow measures or prostate size in men with lower urinary tract symptoms consistent with BPH(4).

2. Cuban royal palm
Cuban royal palm is a genus Roystonea, belonging to the family  Arecoideae, native to southern Florida, Mexico and parts of Central America and the northern
Caribbean. The roots of the tree has been used as a diuretic, and for treatment of diabetes. In rat study, 
D-004, a lipid extract from Cuban royal palm fruits incomparison of Saw palmetto and tamsulosin,
selective alpha(1A)-adrenoceptor antagonist, indicated that D-004 was moderately more effective
 than Saw palmetto, a phytotherapeutic standard used to treat BPH, but less effective than tamsulosin, a 
selective alpha(1A)-adrenoceptor antagonist(5).
Other study of the same by the Center of Natural Products from the National Center for Scientific
Research, showed that oral administration of D-004 for 14 days prevented the
increase of prostate size and the testosterone-induced prostate enlargement with in rodents(6)(7).

3. Prunus africana
Prunus africana. also known as Red Stinkwood, is a an evergreen tree,  genus Prunus, belonging to the family Rosaceae, native to the montane regions of Sub-Saharan Africa. The herb has been used in traditional medicine to treat fevers, malaria, wound dressing, arrow poison, stomach pain, purgative, kidney disease, appetite stimulant, gonorrhoea, and insanity(8).
Pygeum africanum extract, in a multicentre trial in central Europe, treatment found to be effective in changes in subjective scores, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and QoL, after the two-month period the extract also was highly statistically significant with mean improvements of 40% and 31% and with the overall result of a substantial improvement in QoL(9)(10). Although many evidences suggested that P. africanum modestly and significantly, improved urologic symptoms and flow measures, further research is needed using standardized preparations of P. africanum to determine its long-term effectiveness and ability to prevent complications associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia(11).

4. Green tea 
Green tea contains more amount of antioxidants than any drinks or food with the same volume, and is the leaves of Camellia sinensis, undergone minimal oxidation during processing, originated from China. Green tea has been a precious drink in traditional Chinese culture and used exceptional in socialization for more than 4000 thousand years. Because of their health benefits, they have been cultivated for commercial purposes all over the world. The levels or activity of androgen hormones are associated to the risk of BPH, green tea catechin, (-)epigallocatechin-3-gallate, exhibited its modulation of androgenic activity that may be useful for the treatment of various hormone-related abnormalities, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia(12). 5 alpha-reductase activity may be involved in the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The Ben May Institute for Cancer Research, and The Tang Center for Herbal Medicine Research study showed that green tea catechin (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is potent inhibition in cell-free and in replacement of the gallate ester in EGCG with long-chain fatty acids produced potent 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors(13). The study by the Oregon State University, also showed that in the study of male noble rats implanted with estradiol and testosterone divided into 4 dietary groups: control, soy, tea, or soy+tea, the combinartion of  soy and tea attenuated prostate malignancy by decreasing prostate hyperplasia(14). Also, green tea catechin, (-)epigallocatechin-3-gallate, according to Dr. Liao S., may be useful for the treatment of various hormone-related abnormalities, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia, due to its modulation of androgenic activity, possibly through increasing in testosterone metabolism, down-regulation of androgen receptors or activation of oestrogen receptors (15).

5. Licorice
Licorice (Glycyrrhiza Glabra) also known as sweetwood, is the genus Glycyrrhiza, belonging to the family Fabaceae, native to the Mediterranean and certain areas of Asia. The herb has been used in traditional medicine to treat skin diseases, coughs, constipation, bronchitis, inflammation, arthritis, etc. Glycyrrhiza glabra extract with doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg showed a significant reduction in prostate weight, total estosterone and VP epithelium/stroma ratio (V/V)(16).

6. Garlic
Garlic is a natural superfood healer for its natural antibiotic with antiviral, antifungal, anticoagulant and antiseptic properties. A multicenter case-control study of 1369 patients with BPH and 1451 controls, indicated an inverse association of intake of garlic related to the risk of BPH, consistent across age strata(17). Other researchers suggested that garlic potential in treating BPH due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and antioxidant effects as well as its effectiveness for the treatment of prostate cancer and relief of BPH symptoms(18).

7. Epilobium parviflorum
Epilobium parviflorum also known as Smallflower Hairy Willowherb, is a genus Epilobium, belonging to the family Onagraceae. The herb has been used in traditional medicine as an antioxidant and 
antiinflammatory agent and  in treating BPH, bladder and kidney, etc.
According to the study by Farmakognózia Intézet, willow-herb possess remarkable antioxidant and COX-inhibitory action and may be effective in treating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)(19). Other study suggested a protective effect against benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), through inhibited oxidative damage, generated in fibroblast cells, decreased the PGE(2) release and inhibited COX-enzyme(20).

8. Urtica dioica
Sting Nettle is a flower plant in the genus Urtica, belonging tothe family Urticaceae, native to Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America.The herb has been used in traditional medicine as diuretic and laxative agent and to treat diarrhea and urinary disorders, to relieve pain, treat arthritis, asthma, bronchitis, sinusitis, etc.
In a 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, partial crossover, comparative trial with placebo in 620 patients conducted by Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Urtica dioica showed to improve International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), postvoid residual urine volume (PVR) and prostate size(21). Composition of 160 mg sabal fruit extract WS 1473 and 120 mg urtica root extract WS 1031 per capsule (PRO 160/120) found to improve  the amelioration of LUTS as measured by the I-PSS, obstructive and irritative urinary symptoms and in patients with moderate and severe symptoms of BPH(22)(23). Bazoton uno (459 mg dry extract of stinging nettle roots), in a study of a total of 246 patients, reduced irritative symptoms and BPS-associated complications due to the postulated antiphlogistic and antiproliferative effects(24).

9. Ginseng
Ginseng is a slow-growing perennial plants with fleshy roots, the genus Panax, belonging to the family Araliaceae. Depending to the climate where it grows, ginseng can be classified mainly into Panax ginseng Asian ginseng (root), Red ginseng, wild ginseng, American ginseng (root). Ginseng, one of the most popular herb has been used in human history in treating vary types of diseases. Panax ginseng or Red ginseng water extract and its chemical constituent 20(S)-Rg3 showed to inhibit testosterone-induced cell proliferation, arrested cell cycle by inducing p21 and p27, and induced apoptosis, through inhibition of testosterone-induced expression of human kallikrein-3 mRNA and activation of androgen receptor (AR)(25).

10. Rye (Secale cereal)
Rye (Secale cereal) is a grass in the genus Secale, belonging to the family Poaceae, native to the  central and eastern Turkey, and in adjacent areas. The herb has been used
in folk medicine as laxative due to its fibrous seed coat. Cernilton, isolated
from the rye-grass pollen Secale cereal, in randomized controlled trials or controlled clinical trials
comparing with placebo or other BPH medications in men with BPH showed a modestly
improves overall urologic symptoms including nocturia(26). In a 444 men enrolled in 2
placebo-controlled and 2 comparative trials lasting from 12 to 24 weeks, conducted by Department
of Veterans Affairs Coordinating Center,  Cernilton improved "self rated urinary symptoms", reduced
nocturia, but not improve urinary flow rates, residual volume or prostate size compared to placebo or
the comparative study agents(27). 

Taken altogether, without going into reviews, herbal medicine mentioned above may be effective in
reduced risk and treatment of Benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH), but further studies are necessary to 
identify the
principle ingredients through comparison with Western medicine in use with large sample size and
multi centers involvement. As always, all articles written by Kyle J. Norton are for information &
education only, please consult your Doctor & Related field specialist before applying



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References
(1) Pharmacological characterization and chemical fractionation of a liposterolic extract of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens): Effects on rat prostate contractility by Chua T1, Eise NT2, Simpson JS3, Ventura S(PubMed)
(2) Does the addition of Serenoa repens to tamsulosin improve its therapeutical efficacy in benign prostatic hyperplasia? byArgirović A1, Argirović D2.(PubMed)
(3) Lipidosterolic extract of serenoa repens modulates the expression of inflammation related-genes in benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial and stromal cells by Sirab N1, Robert G, Fasolo V, Descazeaud A, Vacherot F, Taille Ade L, Terry S.(PubMed)
(4) Serenoa repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia by Tacklind J1, Macdonald R, Rutks I, Stanke JU, Wilt TJ.(*PubMed)
(5) Effect of D-004, a lipid extract from the Cuban royal palm fruit, on atypical prostate hyperplasia induced by phenylephrine in rats by Arruzazabala ML1, Más R, Molina V, Noa M, Carbajal D, Mendoza N.(PubMed)
(6) Effect of D-004, a lipid extract from Cuban royal palm fruit, on histological changes of prostate hyperplasia induced with testosterone in rats by Noa M1, Arruzazabala ML, Carbajal D, Más R, Molina V.(PubMed)
(7) Preventive effects of D-004, a lipid extract from Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia) fruits, on testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia in intact and castrated rodents by Arruzazabala ML1, Carbajal D, Más R, Molina V, Rodríguez E, González V.(PubMed)
(8) Stewart KM."The African cherry (Prunus africana): can lessons be learned from an over-exploited medicinal tree?." [Review] Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 89(1):3-13, 2003 Nov.
(9)Efficacy and acceptability of tadenan (Pygeum africanum extract) in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): a multicentre trial in central Europe by Breza J1, Dzurny O, Borowka A, Hanus T, Petrik R, Blane G, Chadha-Boreham H.(PubMed)
(10) Comparison of once and twice daily dosage forms of Pygeum africanum extract in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a randomized, double-blind study, with long-term open label extension by Chatelain C1, Autet W, Brackman F.(PubMed)
(11) Pygeum africanum for the treatment of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a systematic review and quantitative meta-analysis by Ishani A1, MacDonald R, Nelson D, Rutks I, Wilt TJ.(PubMed)
(12) The medicinal action of androgens and green tea epigallocatechin gallate by Liao S.(PubMed)
(13) Structure-activity relationships for inhibition of human 5alpha-reductases by polyphenols by Hiipakka RA1, Zhang HZ, Dai W, Dai Q, Liao S.(PubMed)
(14) Dietary soy and tea mitigate chronic inflammation and prostate cancer via NFκB pathway in the Noble rat model by Hsu A1, Bruno RS, Löhr CV, Taylor AW, Dashwood RH, Bray TM, Ho E.(PubMed)
(15) The medicinal action of androgens and green tea epigallocatechin gallate by Liao S.(PubMed)
(16) Antiandrogenic activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra in male rats by Zamansoltani F1, Nassiri-Asl M, Sarookhani MR, Jahani-Hashemi H, Zangivand AA.(PubMed)
(17) Onion and garlic intake and the odds of benign prostatic hyperplasia by Galeone C1, Pelucchi C, Talamini R, Negri E, Dal Maso L, Montella M, Ramazzotti V, Franceschi S, La Vecchia C.(PubMed)
(18) Is garlic a promising food for benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer? by Devrim E1, Durak I.(PubMed)
(19) [Epilobium parviflorum--in vitro study of biological action].[Article in Hungarian] by Hevesi Tóth B1, Kéry A.(PubMed)
(20) Antioxidant and antiinflammatory effect of Epilobium parviflorum Schreb by Hevesi BT1, Houghton PJ, Habtemariam S, Kéry A.(PubMed)
(21) Urtica dioica for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study by Safarinejad MR.(PubMed)
(22) Long-term efficacy and safety of a combination of sabal and urtica extract for lower urinary tract symptoms--a placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter trial by Lopatkin N1, Sivkov A, Walther C, Schläfke S, Medvedev A, Avdeichuk J, Golubev G, Melnik K, Elenberger N, Engelmann U.(PubMed)
(23) Efficacy and safety of a combination of Sabal and Urtica extract in lower urinary tract symptoms--long-term follow-up of a placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter trial by Lopatkin N1, Sivkov A, Schläfke S, Funk P, Medvedev A, Engelmann U.(PubMed)
(24) [Stinging nettle root extract (Bazoton-uno) in long term treatment of benign prostatic syndrome (BPS). Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled multicenter study after 12 months].

[Article in German] by Schneider T1, Rübben H.(PubMed)
(25) Red ginseng and 20(S)-Rg3 control testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia by deregulating androgen receptor signaling by Bae JS1, Park HS, Park JW, Li SH, Chun YS.(PubMed)
(26) Cernilton for benign prostatic hyperplasia by Wilt T1, Mac Donald R, Ishani A, Rutks I, Stark G.(PubMed)
(27) systematic review of Cernilton for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia by MacDonald R1, Ishani A, Rutks I, Wilt TJ.(PubMed)