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Tuesday, 23 December 2014

Premenstrual Syndrome(PMS): Causes of Breast Tenderness

By Kyle J. Norton 
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Premenstrual syndrome effects over 70% to 90% of women before menopause in the US and less for women in Southeast Asia because of their difference in living style and social structure. It is defined as faulty function of the ovaries related to the women's menstrual cycle, it effects a women's physical and emotional state, and sometimes interferes with daily activities as a result of hormone fluctuation. The syndrome occurs one to two weeks before menstruation and then declines when the period starts.

Breast tenderness effects more than 70% of women in the US alone. Sometimes, it is so painful that some women afraid to be hugged and are experience uncomfortable during sleep.

1. Caffeine
Caffeine is a stimulant, containing methylxanthines, a chemical exhibited the symptoms of PMS(4) including breast tenderness(5)(6), breast pain(1)(2) and induced fibrocystic breast disease(2)(3). Reducing intake of foods containing caffeine such as coffee, tea 3 to 4 days before period may help to reduce the symptoms of breast tenderness and pain(1)(4).

2. Stress
Prolactin produced abundant by during baby feeding(9), may also be released during prolong period of stress(7)(8) to cause breast tenderness(10)(11)(12) for some women with PMS.

2. Hormone imbalance
Some women may experience breast changes during menstrual cycle(13). The problem is linked to the cycle, caused by the fluctuation of levels of estrogen and progesterone as resulting of hormonal imbalance(14).

3. Sluggish Liver
Liver is important in carbohydrate(15), fat(16) and protein(17) metabolism. Sluggish liver causes abnormal function of liver in regulating the levels of Omega 3 and 6 fatty acids(18), and induced imbalance of levels of PGE2 induced breast tenderness and pain(19)(20).

4. Nutrients deficiency
a)Vitamins and minerals deficiency
For what ever reason, women with pre menstrual syndrome are found to have low levels of micronutrients(22)(23)(24), of that can lead to over production of levels of PGE2(24) which causes PMS including breast tenderness and pain(19)(20).

b) Omega 3 fatty acid deficiency
As we mention before, Omega 3 fatty is important to inhibit the levels of PG2(16). Deficiency of Omega 3 fatty acid causes high levels of PGE2(16) in the bloodstream induced breast tenderness and pain(19)(20).

5. Prostaglandins hormone
Balancing of prostaglandins hormone is vital in regulating the uterus muscles(21) during menstrual cycle. If the levels of PGE2(19)(20) of the prostaglandins is getting too high, it may cause breast tenderness and breast pain(19)(20) for women with PMS.

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References
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2927749
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6474353
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3314435
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1349785/?page=1
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3296263
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12725453
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25466832
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24657520
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19224938
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22963023
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2139769
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1294345
(13) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15982388
(14) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/600762
(15) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6380304
(16) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18477307
(17) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9022955
(18) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17144882
(19) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12199620
(20) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3858547
(21) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24742728
(22) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10763903
(23) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11684393
(24) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3354488
(25) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10448487