Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
Premenstrual syndrome is defined as faulty function of the ovaries related to the women's menstrual cycle, effected over 70% to 90% of women in the US and lesser for women in Southeast Asia because of difference in living style and social structure. The syndrome also interferes women's physical and emotional states, and daily activities as a result of hormone fluctuation and occurs one to two weeks before menstruation and then declines when the period starts.
The adverse effects of Smoking on premenstrual syndrome
1. Hormone imbalance
Smoking not only increases the risk of lung cancer(1), it also depletes the levels of good estrogen and exhibit the levels of bad estrogen(3) causing hormone imbalance resulting in increasing the risk of pre menstrual syndrome(4) and PMS symptoms(5) for some smoking women.
2. Immune system
Cadmium is very toxins(), it has an ability to attach to arteries wall(plagues)(8) and make the wall thinner, leading to increased cardiovascular mortality and increased incidence of cardiovascular disease(7) and decreasing heart function in blood transportation of nutrients and oxygen to our body cells need, which contributes to nutrients deficiency(9) cause of symptoms of premenstrual syndrome(10)
3. Toxin accumulation
Cigarette contain high levels of toxic chemical compound(6) that may danger to your health including increasing nervous tension(11) and weakening the immune system(12) such as negative allergic reaction(12) and irregular cells growth(12), etc.
4. Mineral deficiency
Cigarette contain high levels of cadmium which inhibits the minerals Ca, Zn, Se, Cr and Fe and deficiencies(13) causing minerals deficiency(9) elevating symptoms of PMS.
5. Vitamin deficiency
Women with premenstrual syndrome are found to have a low levels of B vitamins(14), namely
Thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6, folate, and vitamin B-12. Smoking decreased concentrations of several antioxidant vitamins, thus increasing risk of premenstrual syndrome(15).
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(1) Lifetime probability of developing lung cancer, by smoking status, Canada by Villeneuve PJ1, Mao Y.(PubMed)
(2) Predicting lung cancer deaths from smoking prevalence data by Winkler V1, Ng N, Tesfaye F, Becher H.(PubMed)
(3) Impact of smoking on estrogenic efficacy by Ruan X1, Mueck AO.(PubMed)
(4) Association of menstrual phase with smoking behavior, mood and menstrual phase-associated symptoms among young Japanese women smokers by Sakai H1, Ohashi K.(PubMed)
(5) Global epidemiological study of variation of premenstrual symptoms with age and sociodemographic factors by Dennerstein L1, Lehert P, Heinemann K.(PubMed)
(6) Toxic metal concentrations in cigarettes obtained from U.S. smokers in 2009: results from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) United States survey cohort by Caruso RV1, O'Connor RJ2, Stephens WE3, Cummings KM4, Fong GT5.(PubMed)
(7) Cadmium exposure and incident cardiovascular disease by Tellez-Plaza M1, Guallar E, Howard BV, Umans JG, Francesconi KA, Goessler W, Silbergeld EK, Devereux RB, Navas-Acien A.(PubMed)
(8) Metal pollutants and bioelements: retrospective of interactions between magnesium and toxic metals by Soldatovic D1, Matovic V, Vujanovic D, Guiet-Bara A, Bara M, Durlach J.(PubMed)
(9) [Nutrition and chronic alcohol abuse]. [Article in Spanish] Moreno Otero R1, Cortés JR.(PubMed)
(10) Zinc and copper levels in premenstrual syndrome. Chuong CJ1, Dawson EB.(PubMed)
(11) Assessment of narghile (shisha, hookah) smokers' actual exposure to toxic chemicals requires further sound studies by Chaouachi K.(PubMed)
(12) Effects of cigarette smoking on the immune system. Follow-up studies in normal subjects after cessation of smoking by Hersey P, Prendergast D, Edwards A.(PubMed)
(13) Molecular basis of cadmium toxicity by Nath R, Prasad R, Palinal VK, Chopra RK.(PubMed)
(14) Long- and short-term effects of tobacco smoking on circulating concentrations of B vitamins by