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Friday, 21 November 2014

Women's Health - Premenstrual syndrome(PMS): Diagnosis and Risk Factors(Revised edition with references)

By Kyle J. Norton 
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

 Premenstrual syndrome is defined as faulty function of the ovaries related to the women's menstrual cycle, effected over 70% to 90% of women in the US and lesser for women in Southeast Asia because of difference in living style and social structure. The syndrome also interferes women's physical and emotional states, and daily activities as a result of hormone fluctuation and occurs one to two weeks before menstruation and then declines when the period starts.

Diagnosis
Premenstrual syndrome may be similar to other types of symptoms such as candida, diabetic reaction, allergic intolerance, thyroid function. As of today, no test can diagnose PMS, due to confusion over exact signs and symptoms, the only method is to photocopy and fill in the menstrual symptom diary(2). If there are increasing symptoms in the two weeks before menstruation then it may be premenstrual syndrome(1)(2).


Risk factors
Women in the below categories will be more likely to develop premenstrual syndrome.
1. Genetics and family history
If any one in your family have it, you may have it(4), although there is no proof about it. According to University of British Columbia, the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome was 43.0% and 46.8% in monozygotic and dizygotic twins, respectively found in genetic modeling(3).

2. Age
 Fertile women are associated to increase risk of 86% in moderate to severe of PMS symptoms(5) compared to 95% of perimenopausal women(6).

3. Emotional and severe childhood physical abuse
Early childhood motional and severe childhood physical abuse are associated to risk of PMS in 2.6 and 2.1 time higher in comparison to those with no abuse(7).

4. Smoking
 Smoking, especially in adolescence and young adulthood, may increase risk of moderate to severe PMS, according to University of Massachusetts(8).

5. Alcohol
Although alcohol drinking is not associated to risk of the syndrome, risk of premenstrual syndrome increased for early age at first use and long-term(9).

6. Early maternal age, and having more than three children
If you have children in early age or more than 3 children, your risk of premenstrual syndrome increases significantly(10).

7. Supplements intake
High intake of potassium was associated to  a relative risk of 1.46 time higher compared to women in the lowest quintile. High intake of zinc supplements was marginally associated with PMS, according to University of Massachusetts(11).

8. Total fluid consumption a day
The prevalence of premenstrual syndrome increased if you consume more than 13-19 cups of fluid per day(12).

9. Caffeine
Consumption of caffeine-containing beverages, such as coffee and tea are associated to risk of premenstrual syndrome only to those drinking 7 to 10 cups per day(12).

10. Pregnancy succession
Your risk of PMS increases if you have experienced many pregnancies in quickly succession, but we can not find any study for supporting this risk factor.

11. High sugar and sweet intake
The prevalence of the premenstrual syndrome is higher in women with high intake of sugar and taste sweet(13).

12. Abnormal Hormone upheaval
If you have experienced a hormone upheaval caused by miscarriage(14), pregnancy, or pregnancy termination(15), you are at a high risk of developing PMS. Logically, it can happen, but we do not find any study to support this theory.

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References
(1) Premenstrual syndrome: diagnosis and intervention by Ugarriza DN1, Klingner S, O'Brien S.(PubMed)
(2) [An overview of premenstrual syndrome].[Article in French] by Zaafrane F1, Faleh R, Melki W, Sakouhi M, Gaha L.(PubMed)
(3) The heritability of premenstrual syndrome.by Zahanfar S1, Lye MS, Krishnarajah IS.(PubMed)
(4) Premenstrual syndrome in Turkish medical students and their quality of life by Goker A1, Artunc-Ulkumen B, Aktenk F, Ikiz N.(PubMed)
(5) Premenstrual syndrome symptomatology among married women of fertile age based on methods of contraception (hormonal versus non-hormonal methods of contraception) by Bakhshani NM1, Hosseinbor M, Shahraki Z, Sakhavar N(PubMed)
(6) Premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in perimenopausal women by Chung SH1, Kim TH1, Lee HH1, Lee A1, Jeon DS1, Park J1, Kim Y2.(PubMed)
(7) Early life emotional, physical, and sexual abuse and the development of premenstrual syndrome: a longitudinal study by ertone-Johnson ER1, Whitcomb BW, Missmer SA, Manson JE, Hankinson SE, Rich-Edwards JW(PubMed)
(8) Cigarette smoking and the development of premenstrual syndrome by Bertone-Johnson ER1, Hankinson SE, Johnson SR, Manson JE.(PubMed)
(9) Timing of alcohol use and the incidence of premenstrual syndrome and probable premenstrual dysphoric disorder by Bertone-Johnson ER1, Hankinson SE, Johnson SR, Manson JE.(PubMed)
(10) Maternal age and number of children are risk factors for depressive disorders in non-perinatal women of reproductive age by Aras N1, Oral E, Aydin N, Gulec M.(PubMed)
(11) Intake of selected minerals and risk of premenstrual syndrome by Chocano-Bedoya PO1, Manson JE, Hankinson SE, Johnson SR, Chasan-Taber L, Ronnenberg AG, Bigelow C, Bertone-Johnson ER.(PubMed)
(12) Caffeine-containing beverages, total fluid consumption, and premenstrual syndrome by Rossignol AM1, Bonnlander H.(PubMed)
(13) Prevalence and severity of the premenstrual syndrome. Effects of foods and beverages that are sweet or high in sugar content by Rossignol AM1, Bonnlander H.(PubMed)
(14) Hypersecretion of luteinizing hormone and ovarian steroids in women with recurrent early miscarriage. Watson H1, Kiddy DS, Hamilton-Fairley D, Scanlon MJ, Barnard C, Collins WP, Bonney RC, Franks S.(PubMed)
(15) Growth hormone secretion during termination of pregnancy. Further evidence of a placental variant. Eriksson L1, Frankenne F, Edén S, Hennen G, von Schoultz B.(PubMed)
(16) Molecular basis of thyrotropin and thyroid hormone action during implantation and early development. Colicchia M1, Campagnolo L2, Baldini E3, Ulisse S3, Valensise H4, Moretti C5.(PubMed)