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Saturday, 5 April 2014

Skin aging in Vitamin E points of view

 By Kyle J. Norton

Skin aging is one of most visible process which occurs constantly in our skin organ. According to the Clinical Centre of Nis, certain plant extracts may have the ability to scavenge free radicals, to protect the skin matrix through the inhibition of enzymatic degradation, or to promote collagen synthesis in the skin,  affecting the skin elasticity and tightness(a). Other suggested that free radicals induced domino effects in production of reactive oxygen species, which can react with DNA, proteins, and fatty acids, causing oxidative damage and impairment of antioxidant system, resulting in  injuries and damages regulation pathways of skin,  including wrinkles, roughness, appearance of fine lines, lack of elasticity, and de- or hyperpigmentation marks(b).
 Vitamin E,  a fat soluble vitamin, consisting eight different variants (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol and alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienol) with varying levels of biological activity(2), found abundantly in corn oil, soybean oil, margarine, wheat germ oil, sunflower,safflower oils, etc. plays an important role in neurological functions and inhibition of platelet aggregation, regulation of enzymatic activity, free radical scavenger, etc..

Epidemiological studies, linking vitamin E in reduced progression of aging have been inconclusive(1)(2)(3)(4).
The effects
According to the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, in stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) model of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs), γ-tocotrienol (GTT), a vitamin E variant showed to delay cellular senescence of human diploid fibroblasts through the inhibition of intrinsic mitochondria-mediated pathway which involved the regulation of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes and proteins(5) and prevented cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts(6), probably through modulating gene expression(7) and protected against oxidative stress-induced cellular ageing by modulating the telomere length possibly via telomerase(8). The molecular mechanism of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) study insisted that the variants protect against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress in human skin fibroblast culture by modulating the expression of Skin Aging in COL I and COL III genes(Collagen gene) with concomitant increase in the rate of total collagen synthesis(9). According to the National University of Malaysia, f alpha-tocopherol (ATF), another variant of vitamin E protected against H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage and telomere shortening of normal human skin fibroblast cells derived from young and old individual donors(10) and topical administration of alpha-tocopherol (ATF), in medium doses, may provid some degree of photoprotection against UVA(11). Some researchers suggested the potent of vitamins in reduced aging progression is a result of the balance between various skin antioxidants of vitamin E and C, through new delivery systems, in delivering vitamins C and E into the skin simultaneously(12). Other antioxidant in improved skin health, include vitamin E, certain flavonoids, and the carotenoids, β-carotene, lycopene and lutein, may also effective through protection against  inflammation, oxidative stress, breakdown of the extracellular matrix(13). In Indian women with facial signs of aging study, the composition of niacinamide, panthenol, and tocopheryl acetate significantly reduced appearance of hyperpigmentation, improved skin tone evenness, appearance of lightening of skin, versus control in 6 weeks(14).

Taken altogether, composition of vitamin E and other antioxidants and its variants may be effective
in reduced early onset of skin aging and inhibited skin aging progression, but large sample size and multi centers studies to improve these validation are necessary. Over doses of vitamin E supplement can cause symptoms of blurred vision, weakness, dizziness, nausea, diarrhea, etc., please make sure you follow the guideline of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies.


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References
(1) Evaluation of the photoprotective effect of oral vitamin E supplementation by Werninghaus K1, Meydani M, Bhawan J, Margolis R, Blumberg JB, Gilchrest BA.(PubMed)
(2) Protective effect against sunburn of combined systemic ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and d-alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) by Eberlein-König B1, Placzek M, Przybilla B(PubMed)
(3) Effects of oral vitamin E and beta-carotene supplementation on ultraviolet radiation-induced oxidative stress in human skin by McArdle F1, Rhodes LE, Parslew RA, Close GL, Jack CI, Friedmann PS, Jackson MJ(PubMed)
(4) Effect of UV exposure and beta-carotene supplementation on delayed-type hypersensitivity response in healthy older men by Herraiz LA1, Hsieh WC, Parker RS, Swanson JE, Bendich A, Roe DA.(PubMed)
(5) Inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome c release and suppression of caspases by gamma-tocotrienol prevent apoptosis and delay aging in stress-induced premature senescence of skin fibroblasts by Makpol S1, Abdul Rahim N, Hui CK, Ngah WZ(PubMed)
(6) Gamma-tocotrienol modulation of senescence-associated gene expression prevents cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts by Makpol S1, Zainuddin A, Chua KH, Yusof YA, Ngah WZ.(PubMed)
(7) Gamma-tocotrienol modulated gene expression in senescent human diploid fibroblasts as revealed by microarray analysis by Makpol S1, Zainuddin A, Chua KH, Mohd Yusof YA, Ngah WZ.(PubMed)
(8) Gamma-Tocotrienol prevents oxidative stress-induced telomere shortening in human fibroblasts derived from different aged individuals by Makpol S1, Abidin AZ, Sairin K, Mazlan M, Top GM, Ngah WZ.(PubMed)
(9) Modulation of collagen synthesis and its gene expression in human skin fibroblasts by tocotrienol-rich fraction by Makpol S1, Azura Jam F, Anum Mohd Yusof Y, Zurinah Wan Ngah W.(PubMed)
(10) Alpha-tocopherol modulates hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and telomere shortening of human skin fibroblasts derived from differently aged individuals by Makpol S1, Zainuddin A, Rahim NA, Yusof YA, Ngah WZ.(PubMed)
(11) A pilot study of the photoprotective effect of almond phytochemicals in a 3D human skin equivalent by Evans-Johnson JA1, Garlick JA, Johnson EJ, Wang XD, Oliver Chen CY.(PubMed)
(11) Main approaches for delivering antioxidant vitamins through the skin to prevent skin ageing by Gašperlin M1, Gosenca M(PubMed)
(12) The role of phytonutrients in skin health by Evans JA1, Johnson EJ.(PubMed)
(14) The effects of a daily facial lotion containing vitamins B3 and E and provitamin B5 on the facial skin of Indian women: a randomized, double-blind trial by Jerajani HR1, Mizoguchi H, Li J, Whittenbarger DJ, Marmor MJ.(PubMed)