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Friday, 4 April 2014

Skin aging in Vitamin D points of view

Kyle J.Norton

Skin aging is one of most visible process which occurs constantly in our skin organ. According to the Clinical Centre of Nis, certain plant extracts may have the ability to scavenge free radicals, to protect the skin matrix through the inhibition of enzymatic degradation, or to promote collagen synthesis in the skin,  affect skin elasticity and tightness(a). Other suggested that free radicals induced domino effects in production of reactive oxygen species, can react with DNA, proteins, and fatty acids, causing oxidative damage and impairment of antioxidant system, leading  injuries damage regulation pathways of skin,  including wrinkles, roughness, appearance of fine lines, lack of elasticity, and de- or hyperpigmentation marks(b).
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble secosteroids found in small amount in few foods, including salmon, mackerel, sardines and tuna. The vitamin plays an important role in modulation of cellular proliferation, apoptosis induction, tumor growth suppression and promotion in absorption of minerals, including calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphate and zinc.

1. Plasma of vitamin D
Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels [25(OH)D] was associated to risk of skin aging as the study at Universitätsklinikum des Saarlandes showed. UV-radiation exerts both skin aging -promoting and -inhibiting effects on skin aging. Altered mineral homeostasis caused by a high vitamin D activity, exhibited the  premature aging that include, such as short lifespan, retarded growth, ectopic calcification, immunological deficiency, osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, hypogonadism, skin and general organ atrophy but in laboratory investigations, vitamin D compounds protects the skin against the hazardous effects of various skin aging-inducing agents, including ultraviolet (UV) radiation(1). Therefore optimal serum concentration are necessary due to its U-shaped risk(2). The Stanford University School of Medicine study indicated that vitamin D deficiency enhanced low scores for specific photodamage parameters including erythema/telangiectasias, hyperpigmentation, and wrinkling(3), specially, the skin from aging subjects can decrease by greater than twofold the capacity of the skin to produce previtamin D3(4).

2. The effects
According to Treviglio-Caravaggio Hospital, daily supplementation of vitamin D indicated is about 800-1,000 IU/day but may increase up to a maximum dose of 2,000 IU/day in conditions of severe vitamin D deficiency with a concomitant reduced or no sun exposure, reduced dietary intake and reduced calcium absorption(5)(6). Some researchers suggested that intrinsic skin aging may reflects the reduction processes that are common in internal organs, as the reduced production of sex hormones influence skin morphology and functions, skin permeability, wound healing, sebaceous lipogenesis, and the metabolism of skin cells in both sex and Vitamin D administered and antioxidant treatment may be beneficial(7). In postmenopausal health, low levels of vitamin D may induce obesity, malabsorption syndromes, medication use (e.g. anticonvulsants, antiretrovirals), skin aging. According to Universidad de Zaragoza, Increased level of the vitamin D through regular sunlight exposure (without sunscreens) for 15 min, 3-4 times a week, in the middle of the day in summer may be beneficial, but supplementation intake of vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) or vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) should be monitored depending on the dose used and the presence of concomitant medical conditions such as renal disease(8). Dr Johnson MA at the University of Georgia, insisted " Diminished synthesis of vitamin D in the skin that occurs with aging and poor dietary intake contribute to the high prevalence of poor vitamin D status in older adults"(9). Cutaneous vitamin D3 synthesis declines with age, it would require input of an additional 2600 iu/d (65 microg/d) of oral vitamin D3 to ensure that 97.5% of older women have 25(OH)D values at or above desirable levels (10).

Taken altogether, optimal serum concentration was found to interact in enhancing production of sex hormones and reducing photodamage parameters including erythema/telangiectasias, hyperpigmentation, and wrinkling due to aging. As always, all articles written by Kyle J. Norton are for information & education only, please consult your Doctor & Related field specialist before applying



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References
(1) Unravelling of hidden secrets: The role of vitamin D in skin aging by Reichrath J.(PubMed)
(2) Vitamin D and aging by Tuohimaa P.(PubMed)
(3) Association of facial skin aging and vitamin D levels in middle-aged white women by Chang AL1, Fu T, Amir O, Tang JY.(PubMed)
(4) Aging decreases the capacity of human skin to produce vitamin D3 by MacLaughlin J, Holick MF.(PubMed)
(5) Vitamin D: role and opportunity to prescribe by Resmini G1, Tarantino U, Iolascon G.(PubMed)
(6) Vitamin D and aging by Gallagher JC.(PubMed)
(7) Hormonal therapy of intrinsic aging by Zouboulis CC1, Makrantonaki E.(PubMed)
(8) EMAS position statement: Vitamin D and postmenopausal health by Pérez-López FR1, Brincat M, Erel CT, Tremollieres F, Gambacciani M, Lambrinoudaki I, Moen MH, Schenck-Gustafsson K, Vujovic S, Rozenberg S, Rees M(PubMed)
(9) Nutrition and aging--practical advice for healthy eating by Johnson MA(PubMed)
(10) Barriers to optimizing vitamin D3 intake for the elderly by Heaney RP.(PubMed)