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Friday, 25 April 2014

Cervical cancer in Vitamin K Points of View

Kyle J. Norton

According to the American Cancer Society's, in 2014, 12,360 new cases of invasive cervical cancer will be diagnosed with the death of  4,020 patients. The risk of cervical cancer is higher in Hispanic women followed by African-Americans, Asians and Pacific Islanders, and whites(1).
Vitamin K(K1, phylloquinone; K2, menaquinones), is a fat soluble vitamin, found abundantly in leafy green vegetables, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts, etc. It is best known for promotion of coagulation and bone health.

Vitamin K3 (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), also known as menadione, was found effectively in inhibition of the proliferation of human cervical epithelial cancer cells (HeLa), through binding of tubulin, a small family of globular proteins, including α-tubulin and β-tubulin possible with function of cell division and the movement of materials within cells(1)(2). Other synthetic vitamin K analogue, 2-(2-mercaptoethanol)-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone or compound 5 (Cpd 5) also was found effectively inhibited tumors through arrested cell cycle progression at both G1 and G2-M(3). In cervical carcinoma SiHa cells, Vitamin K3 (VK3)exerted its anti proliferative effects through inhibited cyclin expression via cell cycle arrest and transition of the aphidicolin-synchronised SiHa cells(4)and induced cytotoxicity in human cervical-carcinoma tsgh8302 cells, through exhibited chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation(5).

Taken altogether, synthetic Vitamin K and its analogue have shown to reduced risk of and treatment of cervical cancer through cell cycle arrest and regulation of cancer cell proliferation. Further studies with large sample size and multi center studies to validate the effectiveness are necessary. Overdoses can induce symptoms of Skin rash,  Diarrhea, Nausea, Vomiting, Anemia, etc. Please make sure you follow the guideline of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies.



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References
(1)Vitamin K3 disrupts the microtubule networks by binding to tubulin: a novel mechanism of its antiproliferative activity by Acharya BR1, Choudhury D, Das A, Chakrabarti G.(PubMed)
(2) Mystery of Vital Cell Protein Solved After 30 Years. Receive News Releases Immediately Via E-mail By Lynn Yarris, lcyarris@lbl.gov (Berkeley Lab)
(3) Cdc25 inhibition and cell cycle arrest by a synthetic thioalkyl vitamin K analogue by Tamura K1, Southwick EC, Kerns J, Rosi K, Carr BI, Wilcox C, Lazo JS.(PubMed)

(3) Vitamin K3 induces cell cycle arrest and cell death by inhibiting Cdc25 phosphatase by Wu FY1, Sun TP.(PubMed)
(4) Vitamin-k-3 induces cell-death via apoptosis in human cervical-carcinoma tsgh8302 cells by Wu F, Chang W, Sun T.(PubMed)