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Monday, 31 March 2014

Skin aging in Herbs points of view

 By Kyle J. Norton

What cause aging? The question has been asked throughout the human history, but it doesn't seem to get any answer but raises many more unanswered questions. While many theories try to answer the question by related aging to tear and wear of the body, others deal with how the organs and systems in the body develop and deteriorate overtime, etc.

Skin aging is one of most visible process which occurs constantly in our skin organ. According to the Clinical Centre of Nis, certain plant extracts may have the ability to scavenge free radicals, to protect the skin matrix through the inhibition of enzymatic degradation, or to promote collagen synthesis in the skin,  affected skin elasticity and tightness(a). Other suggested that free radicals induced domino effects in production of reactive oxygen species, can react with DNA, proteins, and fatty acids, causing oxidative damage and impairment of antioxidant system, leading  injuries damage regulation pathways of skin,  including wrinkles, roughness, appearance of fine lines, lack of elasticity, and de- or hyperpigmentation marks(b).
The degradation of the epidermal and dermal layers of the extracellular matrix (ECM), the non-cellular component present within all tissues and organs, such as UV Exposure, decline of lysosomal/endosomal cathepsin K, S and V activity(c) as well as some environmental factors on skin produces visible signs such as irregular dryness, dark/light pigmentation, sallowness, severe atrophy, telangiectases, premalignant lesions, laxity, leathery appearance and deep wrinkling, etc.,  cause modification of the surface of skin and the physical properties of that lead to skin aging.
Certain chemical ingredients, such as aloin, ginsenoside, curcumin, epicatechin, asiaticoside, ziyuglycoside I, magnolol, gallic acid, hydroxychavicol, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, etc.  derived from herbs have been found to be intergraded  into some cosmetic products in treating premature aging(d)

1. Aloe vera
Aloe Vera is species of succulent plant in the genus Aloe, belonging to the Family Xanthorrhoeaceae, native to Sudan. It has become very popular for commercial cultivation due to its health benefits. Aloe vera has been used in herbal medicine in treating many kinds of disease, including wound, burn healing, minor skin infections, sebaceous cysts, diabetes, and elevated of cholesterol, etc. It is also one of many popular herb studied in scientific ways with some conflicted results.
In a study of a total of 30 healthy female subjects over the age of 45 recruited and received 2 different doses (low-dose: 1,200 mg/d, high-dose: 3,600 mg/d) of aloe vera gel supplementation for 90 days, aloe gel significantly improved wrinkles and elasticity in photoaged human skin, with an increase in collagen production in the photoprotected skin and a decrease in the collagen-degrading MMP-1 gene expression(1). In skin condition in the elderly caused by several incurable, but treatable, chronic diseases, researchers suggested that the use of lanolin, aloe vera, and parabens may contribute to  delayed hypersensitivity reaction and aging process(2). In photo aging, combination of sodium selenite and aloin in a certain range of concentration have shown protective effects against ultraviolet radiation induced fibroblast proliferation inhibition, oxidative injury, and decreased collagen synthesis(3).

2. Green tea
Green tea containing  more amount of antioxidants than any drinks or food with the same volume, is the leaves of Camellia sinensis, undergone minimal oxidation during processing, originated from China. Green tea has been a precious drink in traditional Chinese culture and used exceptional in socialization for more than 4000 thousand years. Because of their health benefits, they have been cultivated for commercial purposes all over the world.
Oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a major role in skin aging. Green tea extracted showed to inhibit the toxic ROS-induced skin death, through protection from H(2)O(2)-induced necrosis in a dose-dependent manner(4)(4a), improvement of the anti-wrinkle effects, through its antioxidant activity(5),  skin roughness, through moisturizing effects and enhancement of skin microrelief(6) and inhibition of skin inflammation for managing allergic contact dermatitis without skin toxicity(7). Combination of topical application of green tea and lotus, exhibited an anti aging effect on skin roughness (SEr), scaliness (SEsc), smoothness (SEsm), and wrinkling (SEw)(8) and  composition of a formulation containing 20 % green tea extract and 5 % rose oil, exhibited a skin barrier function for maintaining skin hydration, and protecting against anti-aging process(9).

3. Ginseng

Ginseng is a slow-growing perennial plants with fleshy roots, the genus Panax, belonging to the family Araliaceae. Depending to the climate where it grows, ginseng can be classified mainly into Panax ginseng Asian ginseng (root), Red ginseng, wild ginseng, American ginseng (root). In vivo, Korean red ginseng showed to enhance extension of lifespan, increase resistance to most forms of disease, through regulation of organisms' metabolism(10), and reduce wrinkle formation through
inhibition of collagen degradation rather than increased collagen synthesis(11), protect against skin photodamage, through increasing the production of profilaggrin and filaggrin(12). Ginsenoside Rd, a chemical constituent of Ginseng also exerted its anti-oxidative effects through activation of  anti-oxidant enzymes and anti-inflammatory effects through down-regulation of NF-κB and the consequent expressional suppressions of iNOS and COX-2(13). On gene expression at the level of mRNAs and proteins in human skin cells, extracted from the roots of the Chinese herb Sanchi (Panax notoginseng, showed a significant positive effects against facial wrinkles and other symptoms of facial skin aging(14). In the study of red ginseng (RG) and fermented red ginseng (FRG) effects on aging skin, researchers at the Department of Food and Nutrition, Korea University found that FRG offers increased anti-wrinkle efficacy, whitening efficacy, and reduced toxicological potency compared to RG(15).
4. Turmeric
Turmeric is a perennial plant in the genus Curcuma, belonging to the family Zingiberaceae, native to tropical South Asia. The herb has been used in traditional medicine as anti-oxidant, hypoglycemic, colorant, antiseptic, wound healing agent, and to treat flatulence, bloating, and appetite loss, ulcers, eczema, inflammations, etc.
Curcumin, a major chemical compound found in turmeric, showed to have a protective effect against photo-damage on aging process(16). Antioxidantly, curcumin scavenged free radicals from skin cells, prevented trans-epidermal water loss, included a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 or higher contribute to protect skin from wrinkles, leading to glowing and healthy younger skin(17) and induced cellular stress responses in normal human skin fibroblasts through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway and redox signaling(18).
5. Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica)
Gotu Kola also known as centella, is a annual plant of the genus, belonging to the family Mackinlayaceae, native to India, Sri Lanka, northern Australia, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Melanesia, Papua New Guinea. The herb has been used in traditional medicine to treatnervous disorders, epilepsy, senility, premature aging, etc.
Asiatic acid, madecassic acid, asiaticoside and madecassoside, found in the titrated extract of Centella asiatica (TECA), showed to inhibit UVB-mediated damage in NHDFs through changes in the expression of specific miRNAs(19)(20). Preparation including asiaticoside found in Guto kota extract in a treatment of temporal periorbital wrinkles tested on 27 female volunteers by applied the cream twice a day to the region of interest for 12 weeks, showed a significant improvement of the periorbital wrinkles in majority of the volunteers(21). lipstick containing  asiaticoside also found to improve lip-wrinkle in in a double-blind placebo-controlled fashion of a total of 50 women(22). According to 1LVMH Recherché, asiaticoside also stimulated collagen secretion which is the major components of skin dermis(23).
6. Sanguisorba officinalis
Sanguisorba officinalis is a genus Sanguisorba, belonging to the family Rosaceae, native to throughout the cooler regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The herb has been used in folk medicine to stop bloody dysentery, nosebleeds, and topically to treat burns and insect bites.
Ziyuglycoside I isolated from a Sanguisorba officinalis root extract reduced skin aging through increased the expression of type I collagen in a dose-dependent manner(24). In chronic Ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiation causes of skin aging, the extract of Sanguisorba officinalis L. inhibited wrinkle formation, maintained skin elasticity, and inhibited the decrease of dermal elastic fiber linearity in the rat hind limb skin in a dose-dependent manner(25). 
7. Magnolia ovovata
Magnolia ovovata also known as Japanese Bigleaf Magnolia is the genus of Ovovata, belonging to the family Magnoliaceae, native to Japan. The herb has been used in traditional Chinese medicine
to treat various digestive problems, relieve stress, promote neuro-health, etc. According to
Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences , Magnolia ovovata extract inhibited
NF-kappaB mediated gene expression, thus preventing skin photoaging processes through
keratinocyte hyperproliferation and degradation of collagen fibers in mice skin(26)(27).

8. Rhus verniciflua (Toxicodendron vernicifluum)
Rhus verniciflua is a genus Toxicodendron, belonging to the family Anacardiaceae, native to China
and the Indian subcontinent. The herb has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat internal
parasites and stop bleeding.
Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS), a most common used herbal plant in herbal medicine with various
biological properties was found to be effective in free radical scavengers due to contained flavonoid
derivatives, including fustin, quercetin, butein, and sulfuretin(29) which may protect the skin from
ROS aging. The ioactive phenolics in detoxified Rhus verniciflua Stokes (DRVS), including Gallic
acid showed to protect skin from aging through its antioxidative properties and by down-regulating
MMP-1 expression(28) and inhibited the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM)(30).

9. Chamomile
Chamomile is also known as camomile, common name of many species daisy-like plants in the family
Asteraceae. The herb has been used in traditional medicine as antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory

constituents and to treat menstrual cramps and sleep disorders, reduce cramping and spastic pain in
the bowels, relieve excessive gas and bloating in the intestine, etc.
Chemical compounds bisabolol, silymarin, and ectoin found in chamomile and milk thistle may consist
the property to modulate the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced upregulation of ROS free radicals in
normal human skin fibroblasts(31). According to University of Copenhagen, oral administartion of
composition extract including chamomile improved skin lession of forehead, periocular and perioral
wrinkles, mottled pigmentation, laxity, sagging, under eye dark circles and overall apperance(32).

10. Cinnamon
Cinnamon is a spice derived from the inner bark of tree, native to South East Asia, of over 300 species
of the genus Cinnamomum, belonging to the family Lauraceae. The herb has been use in herbal and
traditional medicine as anti-fungal and bacteria level to improve reproductive organ, prevent flatulence
and intestinal cramping, treat indigestion, diarrhea, bad breath, headache, migraine, etc.

According to Osaka Prefecture University, Cinnamon inhibited the breakdown of collagenous networks with aging results in hypoactive changes in the skin, through up-regulated both mRNA and protein expression levels of type I collagen without cytotoxicity. Cinnamaldehyde, a major active component, significantly increased the phosphorylation levels of the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and its downstream signaling molecules such as insulin receptor substrate-1 and Erk1/2 in an IGF-I-independent manner(33).

 
11. Ginkgo biloba
Ginkgo biloba is oldest living tree species, genus Ginkgo, belonging to the family Ginkgoaceae, native to China, and from temperate zone to subtropical zone and some parts of north America. It Has been used in traditional herbal medicine in treating impotence, memory loss,respiratory diseases, circulatory disorders and deafness as well as preventing drunkenness, and bedwetting.
The study in the comparison of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), a mixture of tea and rooibos (Camellia sinensis and Aspalathus linearis) and soybean (Glycine soja) for their effects in potentiation in reduced skin wrinkle, showed that ginkgo biloba, is most effective in increased skin moisturization (27.88%) and smoothness (4.32%) and reduced roughness (0.4%) and wrinkles (4.63%)(34).

12. Rosemary Rosemary is a perennial herb with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves, the genus 

Rosmarinus,
belonging to the family Lamiaceae. Its fresh and dried leaves has been used frequently in traditional
Mediterranean cuisine and as flavor foods while barbecuing. Rosnary has been used in traditional
medicine as an antiseptic, antioxidant, and antispasmodic agent to treat circulatory problem, eczema,
rheumatism, muscle pain, etc.
Rosemary containing flavonoid compounds with phenolic structures may potentiate in reduced reactive
oxygen species and biologic macromolecules, to neutralize free radicals or initiate biological effects to
prevent skin damage(35). According to University of Catania, natural extract isolated from rosemary
leaves, showed to be effective in antiaging skin management due to its endogenous antioxidant
potential(36).

14. Grape seed extract
Grape Seed Extract is the commercial extracts from whole grape seeds that contains many
concentrations, including vitamin E, flavonoids, linoleic acid, oligomeric proanthocyanidins(OPCs),
etc..The herb has been used in traditional medicine as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory agents and to treat
 skin wounds with less scarring, allergies, macular degeneration, arthritis, enhance circulation of blood
 vessels, lower cholesterol, etc.
Grape seed extract may be beneficial in promoting youthful skin, cell health, elasticity, and flexibility
because of its antioxidant effect to bond with collagen(37).
According to Dr. Bojanowski K., grape seed extract may have a potential in anti-aging effects
throughout all skin compartments, including dermal and epidermal layers because of its induced signal
transduction pathways in facial hypodermis(38). In a study of a total of men from 35 to 60 years of age,
phototypes I to III, indictaed a positive effect in counteract skin photoaging, in daily application of
mixture containing lycopene, acerola extract, grape seed extract and Biomarine ComplexT(39).

15. Lavender Lavender is a flower plant of the genus Lavandula, belonging to the family Lamiaceae,
native to Asia. The herb has been used in traditional medicine to treat painful bruises and aches,
 to relieve various neuralgic pains, sprains, rheumatism, etc.
Suggestion of Lavender aromatherapy may potentiate to ease anxiety in patients undergoing minimally
invasive facial cosmetic procedures(40).
In photodegradation and photooxidation, chemical composition and bioactive properties of Lavandula
angustifolia Miller essential oil, used conjunction with bee oglue showed that bee glue expresses a
highly protected lavender oil secondary metabolites from degradation and also preserved their
antiradical properties, both in in vitro antioxidant assays and in cell oxidative damage evaluations(41).

16. Huang Qi (Radix astragali) Huang Qi or Bei Qi is also known as Astragalus root. The sweet herb
 has been used as diuretic agent and to lower blood pressure, increase blood pressure, lessens
proteinuria, improve endurance, protect liver function, regulate blood sugar, etc. as it tonifies Qi,
raises Yang, strengthens the Defensive-Qi and the Exterior, expels toxins, etc. by enhancing the
functions of lung and spleen channels.
The study of non-fermented (HQNB) and fermented preparations (HQB) of Radix astragali on
hyaluronic acid (HA) production in primary human skin cells, showed that HQB significantly
stimulated HA production in both cultured primary human epidermal keratinocytes and human dermal
fibroblasts and  increased the expression of hyaluronan synthase 3 and hyaluronan synthase 2 mRNA
in HaCaT cells and human fibroblasts, respectively in dose-dependent manners(42).

17. Puerariae Radix (Ge Gen)
Ge Gen is also known as Kudzuvine Root. The acrid, sweet and neutral herb has been used in TCM as
anti-arrhythmia, anti cancers, anti-oxidation, anti platelet coagulation, etc. and to lower blood sugar,
relax the blood vessels, improve memory, treat diarrhea, etc., as it raises Yang; clears Heat,
promotes generation of Body Fluids, etc., by enhancing the functions of spleen and stomach channels.
The study of the effect of Puerariae Radix (PR), a Chinese herb and a popular food in Asia in
Hyaluronic acid (HA) concentrations in the intercellular spaces of the epidermis and the
connective tissues of the dermis, showed to stimulate the HA production of normal human epidermal
keratinocytes (NHEK), in dose-dependent, due to its rich in isoflavone glycosides like genistin and
daidzin(43).

20. Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah) Labisia pumila is the henus Lobisia, belonging to the family belongs

 to the family of Myrsinaceae
native to in Southeast Asia, particularly Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam.
In skin aging, phytochemicals found in the herbal extract of Labisia pumila, protected against
natural aging process and accelerated by UV radiation through promoting the production of skin
collagen 

synthesis(43) and attenuation of UVB-induced MMP-9 expression in phtoaging(44).

Taken altogether, certain herbs have been found to enhance the protection of skin against natural
aging through protection in the degradation of epidermal and dermal layers of the extracellular
matrix (ECM), via their antioxidant and stimulative effects. Futher studies are necessary to identify
 theirs effective ingredients to improve the clincal vadilation. As always all articles
written by Kyle J. Norton are for information & education only, please consult your Doctor & Related
field specialist before applying.



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References
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(b) Phytoconstituents as photoprotective novel cosmetic formulations by Saraf S1, Kaur CD.(PubMed)
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(d) Bioactive compounds from natural resources against skin aging by Mukherjee PK1, Maity N, Nema NK, Sarkar BK.(PubMed)
(1) Dietary Aloe Vera Supplementation Improves Facial Wrinkles and Elasticity and It Increases the Type I Procollagen Gene Expression in Human Skin in vivo by Cho S1, Lee S, Lee MJ, Lee DH, Won CH, Kim SM, Chung JH.(PubMed)
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(36) Biochemical studies of a natural antioxidant isolated from rosemary and its application in cosmetic dermatology by Calabrese V1, Scapagnini G, Catalano C, Dinotta F, Geraci D, Morganti P.
(PubMed)
(37) enolics in grape seeds-biochemistry and functionality by Shi J1, Yu J, Pohorly JE, Kakuda Y.by (PubMed)
(38) Hypodermal delivery of cosmetic actives for improved facial skin morphology and functionality by Bojanowski K.(PubMed)
(39)Clinical, biometric and ultrasound assessment of the effects of daily use of a nutraceutical composed of lycopene, acerola extract, grape seed extract and Biomarine Complex in photoaged human skin by Costa A1, Lindmark L, Arruda LH, Assumpção EC, Ota FS, Pereira Mde O, Langen SS.(PubMed)
(40) Effects of lavender olfactory input on cosmetic procedures by Grunebaum LD1, Murdock J, Castanedo-Tardan MP, Baumann LS.(PubMed)
(41) Biochemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Lavandula angustifolia Miller Essential Oil are Shielded by Propolis Against UV Radiations by Angelo G1, Lorena C, Marta G, Antonella C.(PubMed)
(42) Stimulating effects of Bacillus subtilis natto-fermented Radix astragali on hyaluronic acid production in human skin cells by Hsu MF1, Chiang BH.(PubMed)
(43) Comparison of Puerariae Radix and its hydrolysate on stimulation of hyaluronic acid production in NHEK cells by Wen KC1, Lin SP, Yu CP, Chiang HM.(PubMed)
(44) eview on Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah): bioactive phytochemicals and skin collagen synthesis promoting herb by Chua LS1, Lee SY, Abdullah N, Sarmidi MR.(PubMed)
(45) Labisia pumila extract protects skin cells from photoaging caused by UVB irradiation by Choi HK1, Kim DH, Kim JW, Ngadiran S, Sarmidi MR, Park CS.(PubMed)