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Sunday, 2 March 2014

Endometrial Cancer In Vitamin E Points of View

 Kyle J. Norton

The incidence of endometrial cancer among white women are higher in comparison of black women. According to the statistic, the risk of endometrial cancer among women is 1 in 7000. Every year, about 40,000 women in US are diagnosed with the disease. Women who carry certain mutation genes, such as BRCA1 or the BRCA2 are associated to increased risk of endometrial cancer.

Depending to the stage and grade of the cancer, chemotherapy such as Doxorubicin, Cisplatin. Paclitaxel, Carboplatin, Topotecan may be necessary after surgery. Although epidemiological studies focusing the effective of vegetables and fruits in reduced risk and treatment of endometrial cancer with inconclusive results(1)(2)(3)(4), certain Vitamins, through clinical studies have found to be effective in reduced risk and treatment of endometrial cancer with little or no side effect.

Vitamin E, a fat soluble vitamin, consisting eight different variants (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol and alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienol) with varying levels of biological activity(2), found abundantly in corn oil, soybean oil, margarine, wheat germ oil, sunflower,safflower oils, etc. plays an important role in neurological functions and inhibition of platelet aggregation, regulation of enzymatic activity, free radical scavenger, etc..

Antioxidants in epidemiological evidences, are associated to reduced risk of endometrial cancer caused by DNA damage have been controversial. In dose-response meta-analyse, study suggested that dietary intakes of beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E from food sources, consisted an inverse relationship of endometrial cancer risk(5)(6). The study association between intakes of selected food groups and nutrients with EC risk among 541 women with histologically confirmed EC and 541 women with an intact uterus and noncancer diagnoses seen at Roswell Park Cancer Institute between 1982 and 1998, indicated that intake of vegetable dietary vitamin E are associated with decreased risk of EC(7)(8)(9). But in the study of Instituto de Biotecnología y de Biomedicina with endometrial cells incubated at several hydrogen peroxide concentrations, alpha-tocopherol included in liposomes (1.6 microg) found no antioxidant effect detected in cells in culture(7)

Taking altogether, vitamin E may be effective in reduced risk and treatment of endometrial cancer, but large example size and muticenter studies are necessary to validate its effectiveness. Over doses of vitamin E supplement can cause symptoms of blurred vision, weakness, dizziness, nausea, diarrhea, etc., please make sure you follow the guideline of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies.



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References
(1) Conference on "Multidisciplinary approaches to nutritional problems". Symposium on "Nutrition and health". Cruciferous vegetable intake and the risk of human cancer: epidemiological evidence BY Kim MK, Park JH(PubMed)
(2) Epidemiological studies on brassica vegetables and cancer risk by Verhoeven DT, Goldbohm RA, van Poppel G, Verhagen H, van den Brandt PA(PubMed)
(3) Brassica vegetables and cancer prevention. Epidemiology and mechanisms by van Poppel G, Verhoeven DT, Verhagen H, Goldbohm RA.(PubMed)
(4) Fruits and vegetables and endometrial cancer risk: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis by Bandera EV, Kushi LH, Moore DF, Gifkins DM, McCullough ML(PubMed)
(5)  Antioxidant vitamins and the risk of endometrial cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis by Bandera EV1, Gifkins DM, Moore DF, McCullough ML, Kushi LH(PubMed)
(6) Higher intakes of vegetables and vegetable-related nutrients are associated with lower endometrial cancer risks. by Yeh M1, Moysich KB, Jayaprakash V, Rodabaugh KJ, Graham S, Brasure JR, McCann SE(PubMed)
(7) Higher intakes of vegetables and vegetable-related nutrients are associated with lower endometrial cancer risks by Yeh M1, Moysich KB, Jayaprakash V, Rodabaugh KJ, Graham S, Brasure JR, McCann SE(PubMed)
(8) Nutritional factors in relation to endometrial cancer: a report from a population-based case-control study in Shanghai, China by Xu WH1, Dai Q, Xiang YB, Zhao GM, Ruan ZX, Cheng JR, Zheng W, Shu XO.(PubMed)
(9) Intake of selected micronutrients and the risk of endometrial carcinoma by Negri E1, La Vecchia C, Franceschi S, Levi F, Parazzini F.(PubMed)
(10) Antioxidant activity of N-acetylcysteine, flavonoids and alpha-tocopherol on endometrial cells in culture by Estany S1, Palacio JR, Barnadas R, Sabes M, Iborra A, Martínez P(PubMed)