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Saturday, 22 February 2014

Prostate cancer in Vitamin K's Points of View

 Kyle J. Norton

Vitamin K(K1, phylloquinone; K2, menaquinones), is a fat soluble vitamin, found abundantly in leafy green vegetables, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts, etc. It is best known for promotion of coagulation and bone health.
Prostate cancer is defined as a condition in which the cells of prostate has become cancerous, causing abnormal cell growth with possibility of spreading to the distant parts of the body. Most prostate cancers are slow growing and enlarged prostate and prostate cancer may be detected during physical (rectum) exams.

Epidemiological studies focused in the synthetic version of vitamin K(Vk3) in reduced risk and treatment of prostate cancer have proven successful in certain extents. In human prostate cancer cells (DU145) implanted mice, administration of C/vitamin K(3) showed to exhibit serum alkaline DNase (DNase I) and acid DNase (DNase II) known as circulating tumour marker accompanied by a decrease in DNA expression of the tumor cells(1). Administration of vitamin C (Vit C), vitamin K3 (Vit K3), or vitamin C:vitamin K3 combinations against a prostate cancer cell line (DU145), suggest that vitamin treatment with individual vitamins affects the cytoskeleton(a series of intercellular proteins that help a cell with shape, support, and movement), the mitochondria, and other membranous components of the cell(2).
Vitamin K4 (VK4) is a synthetic version of vitamin K, inhibited proliferation in PC-3 cells with an IC50 value of about 20.94 microM, through cell cycle arrest at the S phase, disruption of the energy production in the surface of cell membrane, up regulation apoptotic and down regulation of proliferative pathways(3). Alpha-tocopheryl succinate (alpha-TOS), the redox-silent vitamin E analogue used in combination with VK3, showed to induce efficiently cell death that resembles autoschizis(cell death), through cell demise, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, cytoskeleton alteration, lysosomal-mitochondrial perturbation, and release of cytochrome c without caspase activation(4), In a A prostate carcinoma cell line derived from the transgenic murine prostate cancer model (TRAMP), combination of of ascorbate:menadione (VC + VK(3), induced cell death by autoschizis, included cytokeletal changes conducive to cytoplasmic blebbing, self-excisions, and progressive nuclear alteration, through axidative stress(5). and the Co-administration of the vitamins also enhanced the antitumour activity 5- to 20-fold, with increased cytotoxicity through redox cycling and increased oxidative stress(6). On a human prostate carcinoma cell line (DU145), the co administration also showed to enhance cytotoxicity through increased oxidative stress, subsequent membrane damage, and DNA fragmentation (7). Menaquinones (vitamin K(2) in the study of its association with overall cancer incidence and mortality, showed to
associate with a reduced risk of incident and fatal cancer(8) including prostate cancer(9).

Taking altogether, co administration of synthetic vitamin K3 and other vitamins such as vitamin C is associated to reduced risk and treatment of prostate cancer, though cell cycle arrest, up regulation of 
anti profilerative and down regulation of cancer promoter pathways or increased oxidative stress. Overdoses can induce symptoms of Skin rash,  Diarrhea, Nausea, Vomiting, Anemia, etc. Please make sure you follow the guideline of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies.



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References
(1) In vivo reactivation of DNases in implanted human prostate tumors after administration of a vitamin C/K(3) combination by Taper HS, Jamison JM, Gilloteaux J, Gwin CA, Gordon T, Summers JL(PubMed)
(2) Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy aspects of synergistic antitumor activity of vitamin C - vitamin K3 combinations against human prostatic carcinoma cells by Gilloteaux J, Jamison JM, Venugopal M, Giammar D, Summers JL(PubMed)
(3) Vitamin K4 induces tumor cytotoxicity in human prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells via the mitochondria-related apoptotic pathway by Jiang Y, Yang J, Yang C, Meng F, Zhou Y, Yu B, Khan M, Yang H(PubMed)
(4) alpha-Tocopheryl succinate promotes selective cell death induced by vitamin K3 in combination with ascorbate by Tomasetti M, Strafella E, Staffolani S, Santarelli L, Neuzil J, Guerrieri R(PubMed)
(5) Cell death by autoschizis in TRAMP prostate carcinoma cells as a result of treatment by ascorbate: menadione combination by Gilloteaux J, Jamison JM, Neal DR, Summers JL(PubMed)
(6) Synergistic antitumour activity of vitamins C and K3 against human prostate carcinoma cell lines by Venugopal M, Jamison JM, Gilloteaux J, Koch JA, Summers M, Hoke J, Sowick C, Summers JL.(PubMed)
(7) Flow cytometric and ultrastructural aspects of the synergistic antitumor activity of vitamin C-vitamin K3 combinations against human prostatic carcinoma cells by Jamison JM, Gilloteaux J, Venugopal M, Koch JA, Sowick C, Shah R, Summers JL(PubMed)
(8) Dietary vitamin K intake in relation to cancer incidence and mortality: results from the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Heidelberg) by Nimptsch K, Rohrmann S, Kaaks R, Linseisen J.(PubMed)
(9) Dietary intake of vitamin K and risk of prostate cancer in the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Heidelberg) by Nimptsch K, Rohrmann S, Linseisen J.(PubMed)