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Wednesday, 19 February 2014

Prostate cancer in Vitamin B2's Points of View

Kyle J.Norton

Vitamin B2 also known as Riboflavin, is a water-soluble, yellow-orange organic compound found abundantly in milk, meat, eggs, nuts, enriched flour, green vegetables, etc. The vitamin is essential for normal cellular growth and function and best known for converting energy from protein, fat, and carbohydrates during metabolism and its antioxidant effects in oxidation-reduction reactions.

Prostate cancer is defined as a condition in which the cells of prostate has become cancerous, causing abnormal cell growth with possibility of spreading to the distant parts of the body. Most prostate cancers are slow growing and enlarged prostate and prostate cancer may be detected during physical (rectum) exams.
Over expression of riboflavin carrier protein (RCP) in prostate cancer patient may be used as a marker in -targeted diagnosis and for the assessment of vascular metabolism in tumors(6). In localized both androgen-dependent and independent prostate cancer cell lines, antibodies to chicken RCP inhibited incorporation of tritiated thymidine into DNA and prevented riboflavin uptake in PC3 prostate cancer cells(7). Other suggestion of elevated plasma concentrations of choline and vitamin B2 may be associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer(8).

  Epidemiological studies, linking vitamin B2 in reduced risk of prostate cancer have produced inconsistent results. In prostate cancer cell line cancer (LnCap), vitamin B2 intakes were not associated with prostate cancer survival(1) and dietary supplements, including vitamn B2 effective treatments for PC patients is not supported by sound clinical evidence(2).  Luckily, in the study of Cancer Research and Product Development Laboratory, Immunal Ltd, active mixture AM: L-arginine, L-histidine, L-methionine, L-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine, L-tryptophan, L-ascorbate, D-biotin, pyridoxine, riboflavin, adenine, L(-)malate), induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway and G1 arrest in PC-3 cells and in PC-3 xenografts(3). Also in the interaction of interaction between β-cyclodextrin (βCD) or hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) and riboflavin (RF) indicated that both RF-βCD and RF-HPβCD complexes were cytotoxic to PC3 prostate cancer cells(4). Other suggestion showed a weak associations between prostate cancer incidence and dietary intake of riboflavin and between riboflavin intake and prostate cancer mortality(5). But in the study of the role of diet in prostate cancer, researchers suggested that intake of  linoleic acid and riboflavin (in subjects 50 years and over) could be protective when compared with control subjects(10)
In the study of the effects of irradiated riboflavin on androgen-independent human,  by Universidade Estadual de Campinas, showed  that riboflavin photoproducts are cytotoxic to these cells in a FasL-Fas-dependent manner, through inhibited matrix-degrading proteases(invloved both the process of ECM remodeling and angiogenesis, and in a potential causal relationship between these processe) caused downregulation of VEGF(vascular endothelial growth factor ) and upregulation of TIMP1(inhibitor of metalloproteinases)(9).

Taking altogether, riboflavin carrier protein (RCP) may be considered as a marker in targeted diagnosis of prostate cancer and vitamin B2 is a vital component of any treatment plan instead of sole means of cancer prevention and treatment in Prostate cancer patients. Over doses for a prolong period may cause symptoms of skin rashes, hypersensitivity, high blood pressure etc., please make sure you follow the guideline of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies.



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References
(1) One-carbon metabolism-related nutrients and prostate cancer survival by Kasperzyk JL, Fall K, Mucci LA, Håkansson N, Wolk A, Johansson JE, Andersson SO, Andrén O(PubMed)
(2) Dietary supplements and prostate cancer: a systematic review of double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised clinical trials by Posadzki P, Lee MS, Onakpoya I, Lee HW, Ko BS, Ernst E.(PubMed)
(3) A mixture of amino acids and other small molecules present in the serum suppresses the growth of murine and human tumors in vivo by Kulcsár G, Gaál D, Kulcsár PI, Schulcz Á, Czömpöly T(PubMed)
(4) Non-inclusion complexes between riboflavin and cyclodextrins by de Jesus MB, Fraceto LF, Martini MF, Pickholz M, Ferreira CV, de Paula E(PubMed)
(5) Dietary intake of B vitamins and methionine and prostate cancer incidence and mortality by Bassett JK, Severi G, Hodge AM, Baglietto L, Hopper JL, English DR, Giles GG.(PubMed)
(6) Riboflavin carrier protein-targeted fluorescent USPIO for the assessment of vascular metabolism in tumors by Jayapaul J, Arns S, Lederle W, Lammers T, Comba P, Gätjens J, Kiessling F(PubMed)
(7) Biochemical characterization of riboflavin carrier protein (RCP) in prostate cancer by Johnson T, Ouhtit A, Gaur R, Fernando A, Schwarzenberger P, Su J, Ismail MF, El-Sayyad HI, Karande A, Elmageed ZA, Rao P, Raj M(PubMed)
(8) One-carbon metabolism and prostate cancer risk: prospective investigation of seven circulating B vitamins and metabolites by Johansson M, Van Guelpen B, Vollset SE, Hultdin J, Bergh A, Key T, Midttun O, Hallmans G, Ueland PM, Stattin P(PubMed)
(9) A possible anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic effect of irradiated riboflavin in solid tumours by de Souza Queiroz KC, Zambuzzi WF, Santos de Souza AC, da Silva RA, Machado D, Justo GZ, Carvalho HF, Peppelenbosch MP, Ferreira C(PubMed)
(10) The role of diet in prostate cancer by Kaul L, Heshmat MY, Kovi J, Jackson MA, Jackson AG, Jones GW, Edson M, Enterline JP, Worrell RG, Perry SL(PubMed)