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Thursday, 16 January 2014

Cruciferous vegetables and Prostate cancer

Cruciferous vegetables are the group of  vegetables belonging to the family Brassicaceae, including cauliflower, cabbage, cress, bok choy, broccoli etc.
Broccoli is a mustard/cabbage plant, belong to the family Brassicaceae. It has large flower heads, usually green in color and the mass of flower heads is surrounded by leaves and evolved from a wild cabbage plant on the continent of Europe.
Prostate cancer is defined as a condition in which the cells of prostate has become cancerous, causing abnormal cell growth which spread to the distant parts of the body. Most prostate cancers are slow growing and enlarged prostate and prostate cancer may be detected during the Physical (rectum) exams.

Nutrients and chemical constituents
1. Carbohydrates
2. Sugars
3. Dietary fiber
4. Omega 3 fatty acid
5. Protein
6. Beta-carotene
7. Lutein and
8. Zeaxanthin
9. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
10. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
11. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
12. Pantothenic acid (B5)
13. Vitamin B6
14. Folate (Vit. B9)
15. Vitamin C
16. Calcium
17. Tryptophan
18. Iron
19. Magnesium
20. Phosphorus
21.Potassium
22. Zinc
23. Etc.
Its chemical constutuents include  glucosinolates, dithiolthiones, indoles , glucoraphanin, s-methyl cysteine sulfoxide, isothiocyanates, indole-3-carbinol, etc..

The benefits
Epidemiologically, chemical constituents of cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli has shown to decrease incidence of prostate cancer. The depletion of gene of GSTM1 genotype of Glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes may be associated with an increased risk of cancer as these depletion reduced the function of GST in detoxifying certain potentially carcinogenic compounds. Study of broccoli involved the changes in global gene expression patterns in the human prostate gland before, during and after a 12 month broccoli-rich diet, showed  broccoli enhances the detoxified function of GSTM1 genotype resulting in complex changes to signalling pathways associated with inflammation and carcinogenesis in the prostate, through the interaction from the breakdown of glucosinolates—sulfur-containing compounds found in cruciferous vegetables with a signal sequence in the plasma. In other study, the effects of potent sulforaphane of isothiocyanates (ITCs) in broccoli, consistently found to be associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer, especially among men with GSTM1-present alleles, and may be used as chemopreventive agents against prostate cancer, with two or more servings per month.
Other study insisted that Selenium-enriched broccoli sprouts were superior to normal broccoli sprouts in inhibiting cell proliferation, decreasing prostate-specific antigen secretion, and inducing apoptosis of prostate cancer cells.


The Side effects1. People who has over production of IgM immunoglobulins which makes blood thicken should talk to their doctor before taking high amount of broccoli.
2. Allergic reaction??
3. Etc.


Reference
(1) Broccoli consumption interacts with GSTM1 to perturb oncogenic signalling pathways in the prostate by Traka M, Gasper AV, Melchini A, Bacon JR, Needs PW, Frost V, Chantry A, Jones AM, Ortori CA, Barrett DA, Ball RY, Mills RD, Mithen RF.(PubMed)
(2) GSTT1 and GSTM1 null genotypes and the risk of gastric cancer: a case-control study in a Chinese population by Setiawan VW, Zhang ZF, Yu GP, Li YL, Lu ML, Tsai CJ, Cordova D, Wang MR, Guo CH, Yu SZ, Kurtz RC.(PubMed)
(3) Cruciferous vegetables, genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1, and prostate cancer risk by Joseph MA, Moysich KB, Freudenheim JL, Shields PG, Bowman ED, Zhang Y, Marshall JR, Ambrosone CB.(PubMed)
(4) Selenium enrichment of broccoli sprout extract increases chemosensitivity and apoptosis of LNCaP prostate cancer cells by Abdulah R, Faried A, Kobayashi K, Yamazaki C, Suradji EW, Ito K, Suzuki K, Murakami M, Kuwano H, Koyama H.(PubMed)