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Thursday, 19 December 2013

Women's health: Obesity and Female Sexual Dysfunction

A. Obesity is defined as a medical condition of excess body fat has accumulated overtime, while overweight is a condition of excess body weight relatively to the height. According to the Body Mass Index(BMI), a BMI between 25 to 29.9 is considered over weight, while a BMI of over 30 is an indication of obesity. According to the statistic, 68% of American population are either overweight or obese.

B. How do calculate your BMI index
BMI= weight (kg)/ height (m2)

C. Female Sexual Dysfunction is defined as a condition of lacking interest in sex. There are many reason for low libido, including obesity, hormone imbalance, pain during intercourse, history of menstrual regulation, mental stress, etc. According to the study of A consecutive series of 107 obese BED (Binge eating disorder) and 110 obese non-BED patients referring for the first time to the Clinic for Obesity of the University of Florence, together with a control group of 92 normal weight subjects, posted in PubMed, researchers found that BED and obese non-BED probands reported a lower sexual activity compared to controls, in terms of absence of sexual intercourse rate, and sexual intercourse frequency.

D. How Obesity associates with female sexual dysfunction
1. According to the study of Obesity and sexual quality of life of 1) 500 participants in an intensive residential program for weight loss and lifestyle modification (BMI = 41.3 kg/m2), 2) 372 patients evaluated for gastric bypass surgery (BMI = 47.1 kg/m2), and 3) 286 obese control subjects not seeking weight loss treatment (BMI = 43.6 kg/m2), conducted by Obesity and Quality of Life Consulting, posted in PubMed, researchers filed the result that Obesity is associated with lack of enjoyment of sexual activity, lack of sexual desire, difficulties with sexual performance, and avoidance of sexual encounters. Sexual quality of life is most impaired for women, individuals with Class III obesity, and patients seeking gastric bypass surgery.

2. According to the abstract of the study of "Factors associated with sexual dysfunction in Jordanian women and their sexual attitudes" by Abu Ali RM, Al Hajeri RM, Khader YS, Ajlouni KM., posted in PubMed, researchers found that Older age was associated with a decreased total FSD index and its domain scores. Women with obesity were more likely to have impaired arousability and impaired capability of reaching orgasm.

3. In the study of "Body mass index, urinary incontinence, and female sexual dysfunction: how they affect female postmenopausal health" by Pace G, Silvestri V, Gualá L, Vicentini C., posted in PubMed, researchers concluded that Increased BMI early in menopause represents a risk both for UI and for sexual dysfunction. Weight control has an essential role in postmenopause and should be considered early in perimenopause to safeguard female quality of life as well as to prevent or improve UI and female sexual dysfunction symptoms.

4. Accorsing to the study of 45 obese and overweight and 30 age-matched voluntary healthy women serving as a control group were evaluated by a detailed medical and sexual history, including the FSFI questionnaire, conducted by Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University,, posted in PubMed, researchers wrote that a significant negative correlation between BMI and orgasm (P=0.007, r=-0.413). Satisfaction was also negatively correlated with BMI (P=0.05, r=-0.305) and weight (P=0.03, r=-0.326). Testosterone levels were negatively correlated with only satisfaction domain scores of FSFI (P=0.01, r=-0.385). We found that 86% of obese women and 83% of controls had sexual dysfunction. Although obesity does not seem to be a major contributor to sexual dysfunction, it affects several aspects of sexuality.

5. On the abstract of the study of "[Obesity and disturbance of sexual function]"
[Article in Japanese] by Sasaki Y, Arai T., posted in PubMed, researchers files the conclusion
that The conversion of androgens to estrone in the lipocytes evokes overproduction of estrone, which stimulates LH release and induces overproduction of androgens. Hyperandrogenemia is a cause of disturbance of the sexual function in obese women.

6. Etc.

E. Treatments of Obesity and female sexual dysfunction
1. In a study of obese men (n = 91) and women (n = 134) using the comprehensive validated Sexual Functioning Questionnaire, conducted by Duke University Medical Center, posted in PubMed, researchers filed in conclusion that Increasing body mass index was associated with decreasing sexual functioning only for arousal and behavior. Sexual functioning was also reduced on most subscales for individuals who reported sexual inactivity in the past month.

2. In the study of "Significant resolution of female sexual dysfunction after bariatric surgery" by Bond DS, Wing RR, Vithiananthan S, Sax HC, Roye GD, Ryder BA, Pohl D, Giovanni J., posted in PubMed, researchers found that FSD resolved in a large percentage of women after bariatric surgery. Sexual functioning in the entire sample improved to levels consistent with those of normative controls. This improvement in sexual function did not depend on surgery type or weight loss amount and appears to be an additional benefit for women undergoing bariatric surgery.

3. In a Cross-sectional associations of lifestyle factors with sexual inactivity and sexual dysfunctions were estimated by logistic regression-derived, confounder-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) study of 5,552 Danish men and women aged 16-97 years in 2005, conducted by Statens Serum Institut, Department of Epidemiology Research, posted in PubMed, researchers filed the conclusion that In both sexes, several unhealthy lifestyle factors were associated with sexual inactivity with a partner in the last year. Additionally, among sexually active participants, men with unhealthy lifestyles were significantly more likely to experience sexual dysfunctions. Considering the importance of a good sex life, our findings may be useful in attempts to promote healthier lifestyles.

4. Etc.
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