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Monday, 23 December 2013

Women's Health - Hormone Testosterone

Testosterone is a steroid hormone found abundantly in the male with characteristics of muscles, hair, strength, bone mass, etc.. In women, testosterone produced by by the ovaries and adrenal glands with only 10% that the male counterpart but females are more sensitive to the hormone.

1. Promote sexual desire
Testosterone has gone through a hidtory of evolution to enhance the sexual desire for the survivals all species, including human being, according to the study of "Estrogens in insects" by R. Mechoulam, R. W. Brueggemeier and D. L. Denlinger, posted in Springer.com, researchers indicated in abstract that Insects representing 5 different orders contain androgen and estrogen-like substances as determined by radioimmunoassay. Estradiol and estriol have been identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The presence of these steroids in insects suggests that the vertebrate sex hormones have an ancient evolutionary history. Does testerone promotes sexual desire in women?, according to the study of "Androgenic hormones and aging--the link with female sexual function" by Davison SL, Davis SR., posted in PubMed, researchers wrote that Sexual activity in women involves interest and motivation, the ability to become aroused and achieve orgasm, the pleasure of the experience and subsequent personal satisfaction. Androgens, as endogenous hormones or given as a therapy, potentially influence female sexual function, with research into the effects of exogenous androgens in women mostly devoted to effects on sexual desire.

2. Testosterone and aging
As the levels of testosterone dropped in women due to aging, it can cause low libido or desire and orgasm domains. In a study of a cross-sectional analysis of 231 Colombian-born women, aged 40-62 years. The sexual function was measured by self-questionnaire, conducted by Center for Women's health, PROFAMILIA, Menopause Service, posted in PubMed, researchers filed the result that women with a higher level of education and with a good perception of their satisfaction with their partners, reported better performance in the desire. Age and the non existence of sexual partner influenced in a negative way on the desire. In sexual active women the orgasm was negatively influenced by low satisfaction scores, lack of emotional closeness with their partners and low educational level. High scores in lubrication and desire were associated with a good performance in the orgasm. The hormone therapy (HT) was associated with better scores in orgasm.

3. Testosterone and ovaries
There are some reports indicated there are influences of testosterone in follicle maturation, but the subject have been controversial. In a study of "The role of androgens in follicle maturation and ovulation induction: friend or foe of infertility treatment?" by Gleicher N, Weghofer A, Barad DH., posted in PubMed, researchers found that selective androgens appear capable of improving early stages of folliculogenesis. They, therefore, may represent forerunners of a completely new class of ovulation-inducing medications, which, in contrast to gonadotropins, affect follicle maturation at much earlier stages. Selective androgens appear capable of improving early stages of folliculogenesis. They, therefore, may represent forerunners of a completely new class of ovulation-inducing medications, which, in contrast to gonadotropins, affect follicle maturation at much earlier stages.

4. Testosterone and bone formation
In women, testosterone also plays an essential role in the forming of bone strength. According to the abstract of study of "Androgen effects on bone and muscle" by Notelovitz M., posted in PubMed, researchers found that androgenic progestins have an additive effect on BMD when combined with E therapy and have the further advantage of being protective to the endometrium in E-treated women. Androgens increase muscle mass and strength. The resulting improvement in physical activity leads to the activation of bone-forming sites and the stimulation of the bone formation-modulating cells, the osteocytes. Mechanical loading, when combined with hormone therapy, results in greater osteogenic response than does either alone.

5. Testosterone and Endometrium
Hormone estrogen is best known for its function in stimulating the thickening of the endometriun to provide a suitable environment for implanation of fertilized egg if conceived with assisting of progesterone. Less known testosterone also have certain influences in that process, according to the study of an open, randomized clinical study with parallel group comparison was performed in the Women's Health Research Unit at a university hospital, posted in PubMed. Thirty-one postmenopausal women were given oral estradiol valerate (2 mg daily) or estradiol valerate in combination with testosterone undecanoate (40 mg every 2 days) for 3 months, researchers found that Expressions of AR and ER-beta were stronger in glands of the endometrium of postmenopausal women after treatment with testosterone added to estrogen than after estrogen alone. In contrast, expressions of ER-alpha and progesterone receptors were up-regulated in the endometrium with estrogen-alone treatment, whereas these expressions were less increased in glands after combined treatment. These data indicate that testosterone is involved in the regulation of sex hormone receptor expression in the postmenopausal endometrium and may therefore influence endometrial proliferation and differentiation.

6. Testosterone influences social behavior
Testosterone in women also pace an important role in reaction of social behavior such as punishment sensitivity and enhanced reward dependency. In a study of in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design (n = 12)of healthy young women, whether a single administration of testosterone would shift the motivational balance between the sensitivity for punishment and reward towards this tendency to choose disadvantageously was investigated, conducted by Helmholtz Research Institute, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan, posted in PubMed, researchers found that As hypothesized, subjects showed a more disadvantageous pattern of decision-making after testosterone compared to placebo administration. These findings not only provide the first direct evidence for the effects of testosterone on punishment-reward contingencies in humans, but they also give further insights into the hypothetical link between testosterone and psychopathy.

7. Testosterone and menstrual irregularities
Do you believe that testosterone also have some influences in regulating women's menstrual cycle?. In a study of "Menstrual cycle irregularities are associated with testosterone levels in healthy premenopausal women" by Van Anders SM, Watson NV., posted in PubMed, researchers found that based on our findings, it appears that even in healthy women reporting no health concerns, menstrual irregularities are associated with higher levels of circulating androgens.

8. Etc.