A. Reproductive Organs
Estrogen promotes female reproductive system beginning in the puberty by increasing pulsatile secretion of the hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), which stimulates the release of gonadotropins and in turn gonadal activity, leading to the growth of breasts and other female characteristics. In a study of "Inducing puberty" by Delemarre EM, Felius B, Delemarre-van de Waal HA., posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that sex steroids will induce development of the secondary sex characteristics alone, while combined administration of gonadotropins and GnRH may induce gonadal development including fertility.
2. Accelerate metabolism
Estrogen enhances metabolism to allow the body of the women to grow, reproduce, maintain the structures and survival of the human species, adapt to the change of environments to sustain living, etc.. According to the study of "Differential roles of estrogen receptors α and β in control of B-cell maturation and selection" by Hill L, Jeganathan V, Chinnasamy P, Grimaldi C, Diamond B., posted in PubMed, researchers found that engagement of either estrogen receptor α or β can alter B-cell maturation, but only engagement of estrogen receptor α is a trigger for autoimmunity. Thus, maturation and selection are regulated differentially by estrogen. These observations have therapeutic implications.
3. Muscle mass, Abnormal fat distribution
According to the study of 64-week prospective cohort trial evaluated the effects of 20-mg oestradiol implants, replaced every 4 months, in healthy postmenopausal women aged 45-65 years. Of 20 implant and 14 control subjects who remained in the trial at 32 weeks, 13 implant and seven controls continued to 64 weeks, conducted by University of Sydney Royal North Shore Hospital, posted in PubMed, researchers concluded that The abdominal fat-to-lean soft tissue ratio decreased by 18% in implant subjects ( p<0.001), but did not change in controls ( p<0.05 implants versus controls). Neither group displayed significant changes in weight, fat or appendicular skeletal muscle mass. The 32-week data were consistent with these results. Hence, oestradiol implant therapy can reduce abdominal adiposity and could lower the risk of obesity-related metabolic disorders.
4. Increase bone density
Deficiency or reduced estrogen levels in post menopause women can lead to bone density loss.
According to the study of "A protective effect of Curcuma comosa Roxb. on bone loss in estrogen deficient mice" by Weerachayaphorn J, Chuncharunee A, Mahagita C, Lewchalermwongse B, Suksamrarn A, Piyachaturawat P., posted in PubMed, researchers suugested that suggest that C. comosa prevents bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency. Therefore, C. comosa would be a potential alternative treatment for prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
5. Endometrial growthWomen's endomyrium undergoes certain change after puberty to adapt to the estrous cycle and pregnancy. According to the study conducted by Research laboratory at Kansai Medical University of 16 patients undergoing hysterectomy for benign reasons, in vitro, posted in PubMed, researchers found that the E(2) or OHT stimulates VEGF production and concurrently attenuates sVEGFR-1 production in ESCs. This consequential increase in VEGF:sVEGFR-1 ratio might enhance the biological effects of VEGF on the angiogenic environment in human endometrium.
7. Vaginal lubrication
Vaginal lubrication is one of characteristic of hormone estrogen for women in per-manopause stage to moistens the vagina and to protect it especial during sexual intercourse. Insufficient lubrication or vaginal dryness in women can cause painful sexual intercourse disorder. According to the sudy of "Treatment options for female sexual arousal disorder: part II" by Feldhaus-Dahir M., posted in PubMed, researcher wrote that Female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) occurs when a woman experiences distress due to the inability to attain or maintain adequate vaginal lubrication. Many treatments are still under investigation, and at this time, there are no FDA-approved medications available for the treatment of FSAD. Treatment options include "off-label" medications, vaginal estrogen, compounded preparations, and over-the-counter products.
8. Thicken the vaginal wall
As a result of level of estrogen, the vaginal wall is thickened to provide favorable condition for conception by moisturizing the vaginal and protecting the vaginal during sexual intercourse, In a study of The study included 89 patients undergoing vaginal surgery for urogynecological conditions, conducted by Mainz University Hospital, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology,posted in PubMed, researchers found that menopausal women showed a higher amount of PR expression in vaginal tissue than premenopausal women. Women with no endocrine treatment showed a lower amount of ER β expression in vaginal tissue.
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