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Monday, 2 December 2013

Upper head hemorrhaging: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) - The Causes

Hemorrhaging is also known as bleeding or abnormal bleeding as a result of blood loss due to internal.external leaking from blood vessels or through the skin.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is defined as a condition of the presence of blood  within the subarachnoid space (the area between the brain and the thin tissues that cover the brain).
Causes and Rick factors
1. Causes
a. Bleeding from an arteriovenous malformation (AVM)
There is a report of nineteen additional cases of angiographic vasospasm after AVM rupture are reported in the literature. The mean age of these patients was 33 years; there was a 1.25:1 female to male predominance in this group. One-half of these patients had an intraparenchymal hemorrhage, and only 56% of them had SAH(1).

b. Bleeding from a cerebral aneurysm 
There is a report of a 59-year-old woman with type IIA von Willebrand's disease (VWD) presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Computed tomography showed SAH in the right sylvian fissure and intracranial hemorrhage in the right temporal lobe. Angiography demonstrated an aneurysm at the bifurcation of the right middle cerebral artery(2).

c. Coagulopathy
In the study carried out in an attempt to find out the association of coagulopathy and the development of delayed traumatic intracerebral hematoma (DTICH) in patients diagnosed with a traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (TSAH), found that on admission, peripheral blood samples for coagulation studies were taken within 6 hours after injury. All patients had subsequent CT scans performed within 24 hours of admission. Thirty (47.6%) of 63 patients exhibited radiological evidence of DTICH on their subsequent CT scans. There was a significant correlation between the increased value of serum fibrinogen degradation product (FDP > 40 micrograms/ml) and the development of DTICH(3).

d. Head injury
In the study of Coagulopathy in severe traumatic brain injury: a prospective study, found that the incidence of TBI coagulopathy in SHI is high, especially in penetrating injuries. Independent risk factors for coagulopathy in isolated head injuries include GCS score of <or=8, ISS >or=16, hypotension upon admission, cerebral edema, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and midline shift. The development of TBI coagulopathy is associated with longer ICU length of stay and an almost 10-fold increased risk of death(4).

f. Use of blood thinners
There is a repory of a 45-year-old woman with prosthetic valves replacement, was admitted with severe headache and vomiting one month after starting danazol treatment at 300 mg per day. She was receiving long-term anticoagulation with warfarin and dipyridamole, taking 3.5 mg and 300 mg per day respectively. The patient's thrombotest value was less than 6% at the time of admission. Cranial CT revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage(5).

g. Certain types of herb
If you are experience certain symptoms of Hemorrhaging, please consult with your doctor before taking any blood thinning herbal medicine. Moderate to severe adverse events, such as spinal epidural hematoma, spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, retrobulbar hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, spontaneous hyphema, and postoperative bleeding, have occasionally been anecdotally associated with consumption of dietary supplements(6).

h.  Etc.
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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22381269
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16377951
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11260889
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19131806
(5)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1886315
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22300597