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Thursday, 12 December 2013

The Effects of Thyroid hormone (5)

Thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)), produced by the thyroid gland, plays an important role in regulation of metabolism, including directly boosts energy metabolism and triggers rapid protein synthesis and regulates mitochondrial gene transcription, etc. Iodine is necessary for the production of T3 and T4, deficiency of Iodine can lead to enlarge thyroid grand and goitre.
41. Thyroid axis hormones and Fatigue in patients with coronary artery disease
In people with coronary artery disease, the association between endocrine measures and fatigue is not well understood. We evaluated possible associations of fatigue and exercise capacity with function of adrenal axis and thyroid axis. In the study by Behavioral Medicine Institute, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences in a sample of Sixty-five men and 18 women (mean age 55 years), showed that In coronary artery disease patients, increased thyroid hormone concentrations are associated with decreased physical fatigue and decreased exertion fatigue, and increased cortisol concentrations with decreased mental fatigue. Exercise capacity is not associated with endocrine factors(41).

42. Depression and thyroid axis function in coronary artery disease
In the study to examine the relationship between depression and thyroid axis function in patients with CAD, showed that The patients with CAD with depressive symptoms had a higher prevalence of cardiac failure (p = 0.04), higher NT-pro BNP concentrations (p = 0.02), and lower free triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations (p = 0.04) than patients with CAD but without depressive symptoms. They also showed a strong trend (p = 0.058) toward a higher incidence of the low T3 syndrome. Higher NT-pro BNP concentrations were related to lower total T3 concentrations (r = -0.294, p = 0.011) and to higher reverse T3 concentrations (r = 0.353, p = 0.002). In men, higher scores of depression were related to lower total T3 concentration (r = -0.289, p = 0.034) and to higher NT-pro BNP concentration (r = 0.380, p = 0.005)(42).

43. Kidney and thyroid dysfunction
Thyroid hormones influence renal development, kidney structure, renal hemodynamics, glomerular filtration rate, the function of many transport systems along the nephron, and sodium and water homeostasis. In the study by Service de néphrologie, hôpital de Pitié-Salpêtrière, showed that
latients with hypothyroidism can have clinically important reductions in GFR, so screening for hypothyroidism should be considered in patients with unexplained elevations in serum creatinine. patients with thyroid disorders are also at risk for immune-mediated glomerular diseases. Finally, patients with nephrotic syndrome, as well as acute and chronic kidney injury, have alterations in thyroid gland physiology that can impact thyroid function and the testing of thyroid function status(43).

44. Thyroid storm
Thyroid storm, also referred to as thyrotoxic crisis, a rare disorder with a sudden onset, rapid progression and high mortality due to hypermetabolic state induced by excessive release of thyroid hormones. There is a report of a case of thyroid storm which had a devastating course, including multiple organ failure (MOF), severe hypoglycemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and stroke. It was difficult to make a diagnosis of thyroid storm in the present patient, because she did not have a history of thyroid disease and her serum FT3 level was normal. Clinicians should be aware that thyroid storm can occur even when there is an almost normal level of thyroid hormones, and that intensive anticoagulation is required for patients with atrial fibrillation to prevent stroke after thyroid storm(44).

45. Hypothyroidism
Hypothyroidism is a clinical disorder commonly encountered by the primary care physician. Untreated hypothyroidism can contribute to hypertension, dyslipidemia, infertility, cognitive impairment, and neuromuscular dysfunction. Acording to the study by Dwight D. Eisenhower Army Medical Center, the prevalence increases with age, and is higher in females than in males. Hypothyroidism may occur as a result of primary gland failure or insufficient thyroid gland stimulation by the hypothalamus or pituitary gland. Autoimmune thyroid disease is the most common etiology of hypothyroidism in the United States. Clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism are nonspecific and may be subtle, especially in older persons. The best laboratory assessment of thyroid function is a serum thyroid-stimulating hormone test. There is no evidence that screening asymptomatic adults improves outcomes. In the majority of patients, alleviation of symptoms can be accomplished through oral administration of synthetic levothyroxine, and most patients will require lifelong therapy(45).

46. Hypothyroidism treatments
Hypothyroidism denotes deficient production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland and can be primary (abnormality in thyroid gland itself) or secondary/central (as a result of hypothalamic or pituitary disease), according to the study by Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, treatment of hypothyroidism can be started with the full calculated dose for most young patients. However, treatment should be initiated at a low dose in elderly patients, patients with coronary artery disease and patients with long-standing severe hypothyroidism. In primary hypothyroidism, treatment is monitored with serum TSH, with a target of 0.5-2.0 mIU/L. In patients with central hypothyroidism, treatment is tailored according to free or total T4 levels, which should be maintained in the upper half of the normal range for age. In patients with persistently elevated TSH despite an apparently adequate replacement dose of LT4, poor compliance, malabsorption and the presence of drug interactions should be checked. Over-replacement is common in clinical practice and is associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation and osteoporosis, and hence should be avoided(46).

47. Heart failure and thyroid dysfunction
In the study to review  the results of the prospective studies that evaluated the risk of HF in patients with overt and subclinical thyroid disease and discuss the mechanism of this dysfunction, showed that the outcome of this analysis suggests that patients with untreated overt thyroid dysfunction are at increased risk of HF. Moreover, persistent subclinical thyroid dysfunction is associated with the development of HF in patients with serum TSH <0.1 or > 10 mU/l. The timely recognition and effective treatment of cardiac symptoms in patients with thyroid dysfunction is mandatory because the prognosis of HF may be improved with the appropriate treatment of thyroid dysfunction(47).

48. Adiposopathy and thyroid disease
Adiposopathy, defined as functionally disturbed adipose tissue mainly composed of large adipocytes and induced by chronic excess of food intake, has been associated with immune, metabolic and endocrine derangements promoting inflammation and, eventually, cardiovascular disease. According to the study by Evgenidion Hospital, University of Athens Medical School, Athens, adiposopathy may positively influence thyrotropin-stimulating hormone, by raising leptin levels, and triggering autoimmunity. In this regard, it is hypothesized that the increased thyrotropin-stimulating hormone is independent of the negative regulation of the thyroid hormone, thereby constituting a secondary phenomenon and not a causal effect(48).

49. Hypothyroidism in pregnancy
Hypothyroidism belongs to the most common endocrinopathies affecting women of childbearing age. Accordin g to the study by Medical University of Silesia, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Pharmacology, the diagnosis of hypothyroidism in pregnant patients may be complicated by the fact that pregnancy has a considerable impact on thyroid homeostasis. Even overt hypothyroidism in these patients may be characterized by nonspecific signs or symptoms that are easily confused with complaints common to pregnancy itself. Unrecognised or untreated hypothyroidism during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes that can be ameliorated or prevented by adequate therapy with thyroxine(49).

50. Hormones in aging men
As men grow older, their levels of testosterone decline while the prevalence of ill-health increases. There is evidances in linking lower testosterone levels with cardiovascular disease and mortality in middle-aged and older men and the reduced sexual activity and frailty in aging men. According to the study by Dr. Yeap BB., during aging, the response of the pituitary-thyroid axis alters to manifest higher thyrotropin levels. The presences of subclinical hypo- and hyper-thyroidism predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Newer results indicate that in euthyroid older men, differences in free thyroxine levels within the normal range predict specific health outcomes including frailty. Clarification of the roles of endogenous testosterone and thyroxine in the genesis of ill-health during male aging offers the prospect of future intervention to preserve health and well-being in this growing population(50).

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Sources 
(41) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23023678
(42) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16649727
(43) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23022287
(44) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22975553
(45) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22962987
(46) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22191793
(47) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22956554
(48) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22894634
(49) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22891567
(50) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22884846