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Thursday, 12 December 2013

The Effects of Thyroid hormone (4)

Thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)), produced by the thyroid gland, plays an important role in regulation of metabolism, including directly boosts energy metabolism and triggers rapid protein synthesis and regulates mitochondrial gene transcription, etc. Iodine is necessary for the production of T3 and T4, deficiency of Iodine can lead to enlarge thyroid grand and goitre.
31. Osteoarthritis (OA), metabolic OA, and hormones
In the study to define a subtype of osteoarthritis (OA), metabolic OA, which is dependent on an unhealthy phenotype with  peer-reviewed research articles and reviews were reviewed and summarized. Only literature readily available online, either by download or by purchase order, was included, found that cartilage is a central tissue of joint health. Thus, the joint, more specifically the cartilage, may be considered a target of endocrine function in addition to the well-described traditional risk factors of disease initiation and progression such as long-term loading of the joint due to obesity. Metabolic syndrome affects a range of tissues and may in part be molecularly described as a dysregulation of cytokines, adipokines, and hormones (eg, estrogen and thyroid hormone)(31).

32. Thyrotropin secreting pituitary adenoma in a child
There is a report of a case of 11-year old boy with Type 1 Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome and thyrotropin secreting pituitary adenoma, which was diagnosed by elevated TSH and thyroid hormones levels and MRI signs of pituitary tumor and without clinical symptoms of hyperthyroidism. He underwent partial resection of the tumor via transnasal approach and subsequent radiation therapy. Consequently 1 year after XRT patient developed growth hormone deficiency, 3.5 years later patient became euthyroid, and 5.5 years after treatment - hypothyroid, acccording to the study in Russia with no author listed(32).

33. phytosterol-containing treatments and throid gland activity
In the study of the effect of supplementation of probiotics and phytosterols alone or in combination on serum and hepatic lipid profiles and thyroid hormones of hypercholesterolemic rats, researchers at the epartment of Food Science, Al-Balqa Applied University, found that the phytosterol-containing treatment. The phytosterol-containing treatments induced the increased activity of thyroid glands, as evident by elevated levels of serum total thyroxine, total triiodothyronine, and free triiodothyronine.(33).

34. Reduced cerebrospinal fluid level of thyroxine in patients with Alzheimer's disease
There is an association between thyroid hormones in the central nervous system and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the study to determine thyroid hormone levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a well-defined homogeneous mono-center population, showed that  The CSF level of total T4 was decreased in patients with AD and other dementias compared to SMCI (both P=0.01) and healthy controls (both P=0.001), whereas CSF levels of TSH and total T3 were unchanged. In the total study population, CSF total T4 level correlated positively with MMSE score (r=0.26, P<0.05) and negatively with CSF total-tau (T-Tau) level (r=-0.23, P<0.05). Patients with AD as well as other dementias had signs of mild brain hypothyroidism, which could only to a small extent be detected in serum values(34).

35. Serum copper levels in benign and malignant thyroid diseases
In the study to examine the changes in serum copper (Cu) levels in benign and malignant thyroid disease in humans in 47 papillary thyroid cancer and 43 benign multinodular goitre patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and 37 healthy control subjects, showed that in our small groups serum Cu levels increased in malignant thyroid patients and decreased in the benign group(35).

36. THYROID DYSFUNCTION IN PREGNANT WOMEN
In the study to measure the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), and thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) in 951 women at different gestational age of pregnancy (Trimester-specific reference ranges for TSH were used to classify pregnant women into five groups: 1) Overt hypothyroidism (OH); 2) Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH); 3) Isolated hypothyroxinemia (IH); 4) Low TSH (isolated or associated with high fT4); and 5) Normal), found that 117 women (12.3%) had hypothyroidism and 25 (2.6%) had low TSH. The prevalence of both OH and SCH was higher in the high-risk group than in the low-risk group, but 17.9% of women with hypothyroidism were classified at low-risk. A family history of thyroid disorders and TPO-Ab positivity increased the risk of SCH. Using non-pregnant reference range for TSH, 10.6% of women were misclassificated(36).

37. Iodine and thyroid
Approximately about 13% of the world population is affected by diseases caused by iodine deficiency. Iodine is a trace element necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormones which, since it cannot be formed by the organism, must be taken regularly with food. According to the study by Sociedade Portuguesa de Endocrinologia, Diabetes e Metabolismo, Salt is the best way for iodine supplementation. Cooking the food with iodized salt is a desirable practice because it guarantees the presence of this element. There are also other methods to provide iodine to the general population, such as adding iodine to drinking water or taking supplements of iodine. In pregnancy is recommended iodine supplementation, except in patients with known thyroid disorders. Iodine is an essential component of thyroid hormones (T4 and T3). Inadequate iodine intake leads to inadequate thyroid hormone production.  The most important consequences of iodine deficiency, in the general population are goiter and hypothyroidism, and in the severe cases, mental retardation, cretinism and increased neo-natal and infant mortality(37).

38. Thyroid hormone and cardiac and renal capillary density and glomerular morphology
In the study to analyze the cardiac and renal capillary density and glomerular morphology that result from a chronic excess or deficiency of thyroid hormones in rats, showed that the renal dysfunctions of thyroid disorders are not related to cortical or medullary microvascular rarefaction, and that the proteinuria of hyperthyroidism is not secondary to a deficit of podocytes. Finally, we propose that thyroid hormone or its analogues may be useful to increase capillarity in renal diseases associated with microvascular rarefaction(38).

39. Selenium and the thyroid gland
Accoring to the study by Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic diseases, Hôpital du Cluzeau, although very minor amounts of selenium appear sufficient for adequate activity of deiodinases, thus limiting the impact of its potential deficiency on synthesis of thyroid hormones, selenium status appears to have an impact on the development of thyroid pathologies. The value of selenium supplementation in autoimmune thyroid disorders has been emphasised. Most authors attribute the effect of supplementation on the immune system to regulation of the production of reactive oxygen species and their metabolites. In patients with Hashimoto's disease and in pregnant women with anti-TPO antibodies, selenium supplementation decreases anti-thyroid antibody levels and improves the ultrasound structure of the thyroid gland(39).

40. Thyroid diseases
The prevalence is about 2 % in women and 0.2 % in men. The most frequent causes are various forms of thyroid autonomy in elderly women and Graves' disease, which occurs mostly in younger women.Hypothyroidism is defined by a lack of thyroid hormones. It is a common endocrine disorder caused by autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimoto thyroiditis), iodine deficiency or following surgery or radioiodine therapy. Thyroxine requirements depend on fat-free mass and are, therefore, somewhat higher in males who are more often undersubstituted. In pregnancy lower TSH-reference ranges have to be considered and thyroid function should be monitored throughout pregnancy to avoid harm to the foetus caused by maternal thyroid dysfunctions. If overtreated women more often feature fractures, whereas males more often develop atrial fibrillation, according to the study by Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University Of Vienna(40).
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Sources
(31) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23232594
(32) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23230697
(33) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23182355
(34) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23159010
(35) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23173630
(36) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23095459
(37) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23069238
(38) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23048210
(39) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23046013
(40) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23027459