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Friday, 13 December 2013

Periodontal (Gum) Disease in Pregnancy

Gum diseases is a type of periodontal disease that can affect a woman pregnancy outcome, including preterm pregnancy and low weight baby. According to the study of Periodontal Disease and Pregnancy Outcomes by Dolapo A. Babalola and Folashade Omole posted in the Journals of pregancy, researcher found that It is vitally important for women of reproductive age including pregnant women to practice good dental hygiene which involves making regular dentist visits that include the removal of calculus or tartar, brushing and flossing regularly, and using mouthwash. This is because pregnancy causes hormonal changes that increase the risk of developing gum disease, and because your oral health can affect the health of the developing baby. In an effort to sustain a normal pregnancy, it is necessary to balance the mother's nutritional, hormonal, and immunological systems.

Causes of gum diseases during pregnancy
Gum diseases mostly caused by infection that can affect the fetus include
1. Hormone
The change of hormone during pregnancy can cause gum bleeding as a result of fluctuation of hormones that make your gums more sensitive to the bacteria.

2. Mouth Infection
Mouth Inflammation caused by thrush, a candida mouth infection that occurs most often in during pregnancy can increase the risk of gum diseases, including bleeding.

3. Symptoms of pregnancy
Certain symptoms in pregnancy can promote gum diseases such as morning sickness, rinse our mouth with water, etc.

4. Pregnancy tumors
Pregnancy tumor such as pyogenic granuloma can increase the risk of as a result of the response to plaque building up that can lead to inflammation.

5. Genetic susceptibility
Some pregnant women are more prone to gum disease than others.

6. Smoking
See avoid smoking in prevention

7. Etc.

Symptoms
1. Swollen gum
2. Bleeding while brushing, flossing, or eating hard food
3. Tender gums
4. Tooth sensitive
5. Loose or separating teeth
6. Persistent bad breath
7. Etc.

Prevention
Healthy habits and good oral hygiene are always the best way in preventing gum disease.
1. Reduce in take of sugar or sugar related products, including candy bars, snack bars, sugar related drinks, etc.

2. Quit Smoking
Smoking can increase the risk of gym diseases as a result of Calculus, Deep pockets between your teeth and gums and Loss of the bone and tissue that support your teeth. In a study of "Cigarette smoking and periodontal disease among 32-year-olds: a prospective study of a representative birth cohort." by Thomson WM, Broadbent JM, Welch D, Beck JD, Poulton R. researcher found that Complete data were available for 810 individuals of whom 48.9% had ever smoked (31.5% were current smokers). Compared with never-smokers, long-term smokers (and other age-32 smokers) had very high odds ratios (ORs of 7.1 and 5.7, respectively) for having 1 +sites with 5 +mm AL, and were more likely to be incident cases after age 26 (ORs of 5.2 and 3.2, respectively). Two-thirds of new cases after age 26 were attributable to smoking. There were no significant differences in periodontal health between never-smokers and those who had quit smoking after age 26. and concluded that Current and long-term smoking in young adults is detrimental to periodontal health, but smoking cessation may be associated with a relatively rapid improvement in the periodontium.

3. Dental Examinations
women who are pregnant with gum disease may be experience no symptom at all. It is for the pregnant and the fetus benefits that they have at least on dental examination during pregnancy.

4. Good hygiene such as tooth brushing, mouth cleansing, and flossing is always the best way to prevent periodontal disease.

5. Etc.

Treatments
Treatments of Periodontal Disease During Pregnancy depending to the diagnosis, your dentist will provide you with all information, The aim od this article is to make sure that you understand that treatments are beneficial to you and you baby with no hazardous to you or your pregnancy.
1. According to the study of "Treatment of Periodontal Disease During Pregnancy: A Randomized Controlled Trial" by Newnham, John P. FRANZCOG; Newnham, Ian A. FRACDS(Perio); Ball, Colleen M. RN; Wright, Michelle AssocDDentHyg; Pennell, Craig E. FRANZCOG; Swain, Jonathan MDSc(Perio); Doherty, Dorota A. PhD, posted in Obstetrics & Gynecology, researchers found that the evidence provided by the present study does not support the hypothesis that treatment of periodontal disease during pregnancy in this population prevents preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, or preeclampsia. Periodontal treatment was not hazardous to the women or their pregnancies.

2. Another study of "Treatment of Periodontal Disease and the Risk of Preterm Birth" by Bryan S. Michalowicz, D.D.S., James S. Hodges, Ph.D., Anthony J. DiAngelis, D.M.D., M.P.H., Virginia R. Lupo, M.D., M.P.H., M. John Novak, B.D.S., Ph.D., James E. Ferguson, M.D., William Buchanan, D.M.D., M.Md.Sc., James Bofill, M.D., Panos N. Papapanou, D.D.S., Ph.D., Dennis A. Mitchell, D.D.S., M.P.H., Stephen Matseoane, M.D., and Pat A. Tschida, Ph.D. for the OPT posted in New England Journal of medicine, researchers found that treatment of periodontitis in pregnant women improves periodontal disease and is safe but does not significantly alter rates of preterm birth, low birth weight, or fetal growth restriction. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00066131.)

3. In another study of "Exploring the relationship between periodontal disease and pregnancy complication" by Yiorgos A. Bobetsis, DDS, PhD, Silvana P. Barros, DDS, PhD and Steven Offenbacher, DDS, PhD, MMSc posted in the Jouenal of American Dental association, ARTICLES JADA Continuing Education, researchers found that It is important to note that all of the studies to date that have involved treating periodontal disease in pregnant women (usually in the second trimester of pregnancy) suggest that periodontal treatment is safe for both the mother and the child. Therefore, treatments can be provided safely during pregnancy to improve the oral health of the mother. What we do not yet know is whether this treatment also significantly improves the pregnancy’s outcome. Nor can we tell pregnant women that treating their gingival condition will improve their pregnancy or neonatal outcomes. We will have to wait for the results of the multicenter trials sponsored by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research that are in progress before we have an opportunity to answer this critical question.
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