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Tuesday, 3 December 2013

Nephritis: Glomerulonephritis - The Complications

Nephritis is defined as a condition of inflammation of the nephrons in the kidneys.
Glomerulonephritis is defined as the condition of inflammation of the tiny filters in  kidneys (glomeruli), which filter blood by removing excess fluid, electrolytes and waste and pass them through urination.  

Complications 
1.  Heart failure (HF), acute renal failure (ARF), hypertensive encephalopathy and nephrotic range proteinuria
In the study of Systemic complications of acute glomerulonephritis in Nigerian children, by Dr. Olowu WA at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, showed that majority of the patients (18/29) were under 6 years of age, with peak age incidence of 3 years. The hospital incidence of AGN and prevalence of systemic complications were 10 new cases per year and 41.38%, respectively. Heart failure (HF) and acute renal failure (ARF) were sole systemic complications in 7 and 2 AGN patients, respectively. Three patients had double systemic complications: one each of hypertensive encephalopathy (HTE)+HF, HTE+ARF and ARF+HF. Ten of 29 patients (34.48%) had nephrotic range proteinuria. None of the AGN patients except those with ARF had FeNa >1%, plasma bicarbonate <15 mmol/l, urea 225 mmol/l and creatinine 2400 mmol/l. Two of the patients died: one each of ARF and ARF+HF, giving a case fatality and mortality rate of 6.90% and 0.08%(18).


2. Chronic kidney failure
In most cases of glomerulonephritis (GN),  long-term course can lead to chronic renal failure(19).
 
3. Etc.
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Sources
(18) http://pennstatehershey.adam.com/content.aspx?productId=117&pid=1&gid=000484 
(19) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8754411