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Wednesday, 4 December 2013

Multiple myeloma- The Symptoms

Multiple myeloma, also known as plasma cell myeloma or Kahler’s disease, is a types of abnormal growth of plasma cells collected in the none marrow where they grow and multiple to interfere with the production of normal blood cells. Paraprotein, an abnormal antibody produced by the plasma cell myeloma not only can causes kidney problem but also interference with the Roche automated total bilirubin assay is caused by precipitate formation of that can cause clinical confusion, according to the study by the Harvard Medical School, Boston(1). Other study indicated that the production of paraproteins caused spurious results on individual analytes including total bilirubin (TBIL), direct bilirubin (DBIL), or HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C)(b). there is also a report of a 50 years old
chloride resistant metabolic alkalosis in a patient with hypercalcemia related to Multiple Myeloma (MM)(c).
I. Symptoms
1. Bone and back pain
Bone pain, especially back pain, is a common presenting feature of myeloma patients. According to the study by the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, there is a report of three multiple myeloma patients with exacerbations of back pain and referred shoulder pain resulting from vertebral infections(1).
2. Infections
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of clonal plasma cells, resulting in an increased production of ineffective immunoglobulins with suppression of non-involved immunoglobulins. According to the study by The John Theurer Cancer Center at Hackensack University Medical Center,  patients with MM are at increased risk of infectious complications, particularly streptococcal and staphylococcal infections(2).
3. Fatigue, pain, sleep and mood disturbances, and diminished functional performance.
Cancer-related fatigue and insomnia are common distressing symptoms and may affect mood and performance status. In the study to describe fatigue, sleep, pain, mood, and performance status and the relationships among these variables in 187 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) and conduct an analysis using the correlates of fatigue, showed that patients with newly diagnosed MM presented with fatigue, pain, sleep and mood disturbances, and diminished functional performance. The regression model, which included all of these variables along with age, sex, and stage of disease, was statistically significant with a large measure of effect. Mood was a significant individual contributor to the model(3).
4. Vertebral fracture
Patients with painful vertebral compression fractures produced by multiple myeloma (MM) often experience reduction in pain after spinal augmentation with kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty, according to teh study by the The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center(4)
5. Others symptoms
According to the study by the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Multiple myeloma is a rare, largely incurable malignant disease of plasma cells. Patients usually present with hypercalcemia, renal insufficiency, anemia and/or lytic bony lesions along with a monoclonal protein in the serum and/or urine in addition to an increase in the number of clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow(5). Other study indicated that patients with MM reported a mean decrease (e.g., worsening) between baseline and 1-yr follow-up scores for: quality of life (mean, 68 vs. 55, respectively, P < 0.001; 74% of patients had a deteriorated score), fatigue (33 vs. 39, P < 0.05; 50%), nausea and vomiting (6.3 vs. 13, P < 0.05; 71%), pain (33 vs. 43, P < 0.05; 59%), and dyspnea (17 vs. 33, P < 0.001; 66%). The most bothering symptoms during the past week were tingling hands/feet (32%), back pain (28%), bone aches/pain (26%), pain in arm/shoulder (19%), and feeling drowsy (18%)(6).

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Sources
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12521367
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18251580
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22073517 
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12648075 
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22678167 
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21522061
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22543044
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23386937
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22762785