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Monday, 2 December 2013

Kidney stones (Renal calculus) Treatment In conventional medicine perspective

Kidney stones is a composed of mineral salts formed in the kidneys. Men account for the 80% of those with kidney stones and are at risk of the formings between 30 and 40 years of age. About 75% of kidney stones are calcium stones.
A. In conventional medicine perspective
Most kidney with diameter less than 5 mm (0.20 in) may pass through the urinary tract through urination within days of the onset of symptoms
A.1. Medications
The aims of medication is to manage pain or assist the speed up the spontaneous passage of ureteral calculi
1. Analgesia
Medication used to relieve pain.
2. Expulsion therapy
a. In the study to evaluate the efficacy of alfuzosin as medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteral stone passage od a total of 76 patients with a distal ureteral calculus, showed that the overall spontaneous stone passage rate was 75%, including 77.1% for placebo and 73.5% for alfuzosin (p = 0.83). Mean +/- SD time needed to pass the stone was 8.54 +/- 6.99 days for placebo vs 5.19 +/- 4.82 days for alfuzosin. (p = 0.003). There was no difference in the size or volume of stones that passed spontaneously between the placebo and alfuzosin arms, as measured on baseline computerized tomography (4.08 +/- 1.17 and 3.83 +/- 0.95 mm, p = 0.46) and by a digital caliper after stone expulsion (3.86 +/- 1.76 and 3.91 +/- 1.06 mm, respectively, p = 0.57). When comparing the improvement from the baseline pain score, the alfuzosin arm experienced a greater decrease in pain score in the days after the initial emergency department visit to the date of stone passage (p = 0.0005)(18).

A.2. Non invasive treatment and surgery
Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy does not require anaesthesia and requires little analgesia so that treatment can be given on an outpatient basis, and there is no wound to heal. Only a small puncture site is needed for percutaneous endoscopic lithotomy, and with the advent of prophylactic antibiotics there are few complications. Of renal stones, about 85% can now be successfully treated by extracorporeal lithotripsy alone, and almost all of the stones too large or hard for lithotripsy can be treated endoscopically, with ultrasonic or electrohydraulic probes being used to fragment the stone(19).

A.3. Recurrent treatments
2.1. Recurrent cystine renal stones
In the report of using ureterorenoscopy (URS) for the treatment of recurrent renal cystine stones. From 2003 to 2007, 10 patients (4 males and 6 females) with one or multiple recurrent renal cystine stones underwent URS. Overall, 21 procedures have been performed. Mean maximum diameter of stones was 11.2 mm (range 5-30 mm). Either 8-9.5 F semirigid or 7.9 F flexible ureteroscopes were used. In 6 cases, stones were removed using a basket; in 9 procedures laser lithotripsy with flexible scope was performed; in 6 cases renal calculi were pulled down in the ureter using flexible instrument and then shattered with laser introduced by semirigid instrument. Stone-free status was defined as the absence of any residual fragment. A complete stone clearance was obtained in 15 out of 21 procedures (71%). In 5 cases (24%) significant residual fragments occurred; in the remaining case (5%) URS was ineffective. In 5 out of these unsuccessful procedures, stone clearance was obtained with auxiliary treatments. The last patient has not been treated yet(20).

2.2. In general
Patients with kidney stones are highly motivated to prevent recurrence and were more amenable to fluid intake change than to another dietary or pharmaceutical intervention. Barriers preventing fluid intake success aligned into 3 progressive stages.
a. Stage 1 barriers included not knowing the benefits of fluid or not remembering to drink.
b. Stage 2 barriers included disliking the taste of water, lack of thirst and lack of availability.
c. Stage 3 barriers included the need to void frequently and related workplace disruptions.
Tailoring fluid intake counseling based on patient stage may improve fluid intake behavior(21).

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