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Monday, 2 December 2013

Kidney stones (Renal calculus) - The Risk Factors

Kidney stones is a composed of mineral salts formed in the kidneys. Men account for the 80% of those with kidney stones and are at risk of the formings between 30 and 40 years of age. About 75% of kidney stones are calcium stones.
Risk factors
1. Gender
If you are men, you are at higher risk to develop kidney stones. In the study to determine gender differences in the symptomatic presentation of kidney and ureteral stones among the Hispanic population and compared it with presentation in the Caucasian population, found that the male-to-female ratio of the symptomatic patients with kidney stones was 1.48 for both Hispanic and Caucasian patients. The male-to-female ratio for ureteral stones was 1.06 and 2.48 for the Hispanic and Caucasian patients, respectively (P < 0.05)(4).

2. Family history
You are more likely to develop (more) kidney stones, if one the your directed family member have itor you already have them as a result of genetic factors, environmental exposures, or others(5).

3. Hyperuricemia
If you have hyperuricemia, you are at invreased risk to develop kidney stone as the result of the elevation of uric acid levels. Uric acid stones occur in 10% of all kidney stones and are the second most-common cause of urinary stones after calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate calculi(6).

4. Pregnancy
Although the risk is low, increased progesterone levels and decreased fluid intake during pregnancy may  be associated with the increased risk of the development of kidney stones. According to the study of 22,843 newborns or fetuses with CAs, 69 (0.30%) had mothers with KS during pregnancy. Of 38,151 matched control newborns without any abnormalities, 147 (0.39%) had KS during pregnancy. KS were associated with an adjusted prevalence odds ratio (POR) with 95% CI of 0.8, 0.6-1.0 for CAs(7).

5. Low urine pH (below 5.5) 
For uric acid crystallization and stone formation, low urine pH (below 5.5) is a more important risk factor than increased urinary uric acid excretion. Main causes of low urine pH are tubular disorders (including gout), chronic diarrheal states or severe dehydration(8).

6. Infection of urinary track
In the study of total of 100 kidney stone formers (59 males and 41 females) admitted for elective percutaneous nephrolithotomy who were recruited and microorganisms isolated from catheterized urine and cortex and nidus of their stones by Faculty of Associated Medical Science, Khon Kaen University, showed that from 100 stone formers recruited, 36 cases had a total of 45 bacterial isolates cultivated from their catheterized urine and/or stone matrices. Among these 36 cases, chemical analysis by Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy revealed that 8 had the previously classified 'infection-induced stones', whereas the other 28 cases had the previously classified 'metabolic stones'. Calcium oxalate (in either pure or mixed form) was the most common and found in 64 and 75% of the stone formers with and without bacterial isolates, respectively. Escherichia coli was the most common bacterium (approximately one-third of all bacterial isolates) found in urine and stone matrices (both nidus and periphery). Linear regression analysis showed significant correlation (r = 0.860, P < 0.001) between bacterial types in urine and stone matrices. Multidrug resistance was frequently found in these isolated bacteria. Moreover, urea test revealed that only 31% were urea-splitting bacteria, whereas the majority (69%) had negative urea test(9).

7. Water hardness 
In the study to evaluate whether the hardness of extra meal drinking water modifies the risk for calcium stones, showed that the main urinary risk factors for calcium stones, were measured in 18 patients with idiopathic nephrolithiasis, maintained at fixed dietary intake of calcium (800 mg/day), after drinking for 1 week 2 liters per day, between meals, of tap water and at the end of 1 week of the same amount of bottled hard (Ca2+ 255 mg/l) or soft (Ca2+ 22 mg/l, Fiuggi water) water, in a double-blind randomized, crossover fashion(10).

8. Obesity and diabetes
Obesity and diabetes were strongly associated with a history of kidney stones in multivariable models. The cross-sectional survey design limits causal inference regarding potential risk factors for kidney stones(11).

9. Etc.
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Sources
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15865513
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9335385
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15493118
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17096158
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12649987 
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22461670
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9873217
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22498635