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Wednesday, 11 December 2013

Hyperthyroidism in Pregnancy - The Causes & Risk Factors

Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland is over active and produces too much thyroid hormones.
Hyperthyroidism during pregnancy mostly happens to younger women and usually is over looked due to the production of hormone HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. It is very important that hyperthyroidism is controlled after the 12 weeks of pregnancy, if left untreated, it can increase the risk of miscarriage or birth defect.
Causes and risk factorsA. Transient hyperthyroidism
Hormonal change
In the first trimester, during to hormone change, 1 in 500 women will experience htpwetension as a result of elevating Thyroxine binding globulin (TBG). the symptom will go away after 12 weks of pregnancy and medication given. If the symptoms have become more serve than antithyroid drugs may be given with noharm to the fetus.

B. Thyrotoxicosis
1. Graves' disease.
Graves disease is defined as a condition hyperthyroidism, as a result of the autoimmune diseases causing the overproduction of the hormone thyroxine. It is most common during pregnancy and affects over 95% of all cases

2. Nodular thyroid disease
Nodular thyroid disease is the enlargement of thyroid gland and the incidence is always painless. According to the article of NODULAR THYROID DISEASE - Thyroid nodule growth during pregnancy. In a prospective study we have performed in Brussels, thyroid nodules were diagnosed by ultrasound at initial presentation during early gestation in 3% of a cohort of normal pregnancies [169]. Repeat ultrasound performed within a week after delivery revealed a 60% increase in the size of the nodules and the detection of new nodules in 20% of the women.

3. Thyroiditis
It is a result of inflammation of the thyroid gland.

4. Tumors
Tumors in the pituitary gland and ovaries can cause hyperthyroidism during pregancy.

5. Family history
Increased risk of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy if a directed member in woman's family history of the disease.

6. Heredity
The disease may be caused by genetic passing through from one generation to the next.

7. Personal history
Increased risk of hyperthyroidism in a pregnancy woman, if she has a previous record of the incidence.

8. Smoking
According to an article posted England Journal of Medicine -- October 12, 1995 -- Volume 333, Number 15 "Cigarette Smoking and the Thyroid," the researchers found that smoking is associated with so many abnormalities of thyroid function that it is unlikely it has just one single effect on the thyroid gland.

9. Exposure to Iodine
Exposure to Iodine over a prolonged period of time can increase the risk of hyperthyroidism

10. Medication
Certain medication such as Interferon Beta-1b and Interleukin-4, immunosuppressant therapy, antiretroviral treatment for AIDS, etc. can increase the risk of the disease.

11. Etc.
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