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Sunday, 1 December 2013

Hydrocephalus Preventions - The Do's and Do Not's list

Hydrocephalus, also known as "water in the brain" is defined as complex and multifactorial neurological disorders of accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the cavity of brain of that can lead to intracranial pressure inside the side, resulting of brain trauma, stroke, infection, tumor, etc.
Preventions
Other than structures abnormalities caused by genetic defects, accidence, etc., most acquired hydrocephalus can be prevented by enhancing the immune system in fighting against forming of free radicals causes of irregular cells growth and foreign invasion such virus and bacteria and reduce the risk of diseases cause of Hydrocephalus, such as dementia.
A. Do's and Do Not's list
 1. Mediterranean diet
If you are typical American dieter, you are at increased to develop dementia when you get older as the diet is classified as one of the most unhealthy diet in the existence, as the study of ,researchers wrote in an older population of Southern Italy with a typical Mediterranean diet, high monounsaturated fatty acids energy intake appeared to be associated with a high protection against cognitive decline. In addition, dietary fat and energy in older people seem to be risk factors, while fish consumption and cereals are found to reduce the prevalence of AD in the European and North American countries(1). Also recent research supports the hypothesis that calorie intake, among other non-genetic factors, can influence the risk of clinical dementia.(29).

2. Yoga 
Yoga is believed to have beneficial effects on cognition, attenuation of emotional intensity and stress reduction. In  the study to evaluate the effects of yoga on memory and psychophysiological parameters related to stress, comparing yoga practice and conventional physical exercises in healthy men (previously yoga-naïve). Memory tests, salivary cortisol levels and stress, anxiety, and depression inventories were assessed before and after 6months of practice. Yoga practitioners showed improvement of the memory performance, as well as improvements in psychophysiological parameters(30). Other researchers at the G.J. Patel Ayurved College, showed that Mind and body are inseparable entities and influences each other until death. Many factors such as stress, anxiety, depression, negative thoughts, unhealthy life style, unwholesome diet etc., disturb mental and physical wellbeing. Senile dementia is the mental deterioration, i.e, loss of intellectual ability associated with old age. It causes progressive deterioration of mental faculties, e.g., memory, intellect, attention, thinking, comprehension and personality, with preservation of normal level of consciousness.(31). Other suggested that the effect of stress on the immune system and examine how relaxation techniques such as Yoga and meditation could regulate the cytokine levels and hence, the immune responses during stress(31a).

3. Aging of theory of mind
In the study to predict that educational level and cognitive processing are two factors influencing the pattern of the aging of ToM at Anhui Medical University, showed that  the younger group and the older group with equally high education outperformed the older group with less education in false-belief and faux-pas tasks. However, there was no significant difference between the two former groups. The three groups of participants performed equivalently in the eyes test as well as in control tasks (false-belief control question, faux-pas control question, faux-pas control story, and Eyes Test control task). The younger group outperformed the other two groups in the cognitive processing tasks(32)

3. Moderate alcohol drinking
Moderate alcohol drinking of less than 2 cups for men and 1 cups for women are said to offers possible health benefits(3), but Binge drinking in midlife is associated with an increased risk of dementia, according to the follow-up, 103 participants had developed dementia. Binge drinking (ie, alcohol exceeding the amount of 5 bottles of beer or a bottle of wine on 1 occasion at least monthly), as reported in 1975, was associated with a relative risk of 3.2 (95% confidence interval=1.2-8.6) for dementia. Passing out at least twice as a result of excessive alcohol use during the previous year, as reported in 1981, was associated with a relative risk of 10.5 (2.4-46) for dementia in drinkers.(33). Other in the study to evaluated how (1) the number of alcoholic drinks the subjects consumed per month and (2) the drinking cessation of certain subjects were associated with their relative and absolute T, B, CD4, and CD8 lymphocyte counts and immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgM, and IgG levels, indicated that indicated that measures of immune status differed among the drinking categories and that, generally, the differences changed after adjustment for covariates. These differences consisted, as alcohol consumption increased, of higher IgA and IgM levels, relative T and CD4 lymphocytes, and the ratio of CD4 to CD8 cells, and of lower IgG levels, relative B and CD8 lymphocytes, absolute lymphocyte, and lymphocyte subset counts after adjusting for other covariates(33a).

4.  Stop Smoking or never smoke before
Smoking is a risk factor for several life-threatening diseases, but its long-term association with dementia is controversial and somewhat understudied.In a studyof a total of 5367 people (25.4%) were diagnosed as having dementia (including 1136 cases of AD and 416 cases of VaD) during a mean follow-up period of 23 years. Results were adjusted for age, sex, education, race, marital status, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, body mass index, diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and alcohol use, Dr. Rusanen M, and the team at the University of Eastern Finland, said " heavy smoking in midlife was associated with a greater than 100% increase in risk of dementia, AD, and VaD more than 2 decades later. These results suggest that the brain is not immune to long-term consequences of heavy smoking"(34).

5. Drink you tea and coffee
Caffeine in tea and coffee may enhance cognitive function acutely. In Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study, the findings of the previous studies are somewhat inconsistent, but most studies (3 out of 5) support coffee's favorable effects against cognitive decline, dementia or AD. In addition, two studies had combined coffee and tea drinking and indicated some positive effects on cognitive functioning. For tea drinking, protective effects against cognitive decline/dementia are still less evident. In the CAIDE study, coffee drinking of 3-5 cups per day at midlife was associated with a decreased risk of dementia/AD by about 65% at late-life. coffee(35). Others in the study of Immunomodulatory effects of decaffeinated green tea (Camellia sinensis) on the immune system of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), showed that decaffeinated green tea in lower doses of administration could be optimum to enhance the immunity of rainbow trout(36a).


6. Eat you fruits and veggies 
Fruits and veggies contains high amounts of antioxidant which enhance the immune system in fighting against forming of free radicals in which can cause damage to the brain cells of that lead to dementia. Researchers at The Johns Hopkins University indicated that use of vitamin E and vitamin C supplements in combination is associated with reduced prevalence and incidence of AD. Antioxidant supplements merit further study as agents for the primary prevention of AD(36).

7. Regular exercise and moderate exercise for elder
In the study to evaluate to the effects of regular exercise versus a single bout of exercise on cognition, anxiety, and mood were systematically examined in healthy, sedentary young adults who were genotyped to determine brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) allelic status, indicaed that altered activity-dependent release of BDNF in Met allele carriers may attenuate the cognitive benefits of exercise. Importantly, exercise-induced changes in cognition were not correlated with changes in mood/anxiety, suggesting that separate neural systems mediate these effects(37). Other indicated that Overall, in healthy older adults, regular, particularly aerobic, exercise appears to be a friend of the immune system, helping to offset diminished adaptive responses and chronic inflammation. The possibility exists that particularly strenuous exercise may cause acute immunologic changes, such as diminished NK cell activity, which could predispose to infection in certain individuals(37a)

8.  Avoid nutritional deficiency with balance diet
Beyond our believe, in the study to highlight how an excess of dietary carbohydrates, particularly fructose, alongside a relative deficiency in dietary fats and cholesterol, may lead to the development of Alzheimer's disease and a first step in the pathophysiology of the disease is represented by advanced glycation end-products in crucial plasma proteins concerned with fat, cholesterol, and oxygen transport.(38). Dr Pae M, and the research team at the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, suggested that  the need for a more in-depth, wholestic approach to determining the optimal nutritional strategies that would maintain a healthy immune system in the elderly and promote their resistance to infection and other immune-related diseases(38a).

9. Avoid environment risk of dementia(39)
Certain environment toxins produced as a result of industrialization or naturally have been linked to cognitive degenerative diseases. Researchers at the University of British Columbia in the investugation of Novel environmental toxins: steryl glycosides as a potential etiological factor for age-related neurodegenerative diseases, showed that Mice fed washed cycad flour show signs that mimic ALS-PDC, which include progressive deficits in motor, cognitive, and olfactory functions associated with neuron loss in the spinal cord, nigrostriatal system, cortex, hippocampus, and olfactory bulb. Through a series of chemical extractions of washed cycad flour, we identified steryl glycoside molecules as bioactive molecules that are neurotoxic in culture and in mice. A detailed review of this class of molecule revealed that the molecules are abundant in the environment, particularly in plants and bacteria. Lipid analysis showed that some bacteria that are associated with some forms of neurodegenerative disorders have the capacity to synthesize steryl glycosides. Furthermore, certain steryl glycosides have been found to be a cell stress mediator and may have some immunomodulary effects. Others researchers showed that Parkinson disease (PD) and Alzheimer disease (AD), are of purely genetic origin in a minority of cases and appear in most instances to arise through interactions among genetic and environmental factors and early environmental origins of neurodegenerative disease in later life. Also environment toxins can reduce the immune function in protecting against other diseases.

10. No illicit drug, please(40)
Illicit drug used may cause nervous system impairment as a result of direct and indirect effects on the integrity and function of nervous system tissue and, potentially, through immune effects. HIV-1 infection poses an additional risk of impairment, and this risk may be decreased as a result of antiretroviral drug treatment. Others researchers suggested that injection drug use represents the primary risk factor for up to 40% of patients with HIV infection. Illicit drug also can effect the CNS and weaken the immune system.

11. Prevent prolonged period of using certain drug(41)
As aging, accumulation of toxins of certain medication used to treat certain diseases, such as antidepressants, sedatives, cardiovascular drugs and anti-anxiety medications may cause increased risk of cognitive dysfunction leading to produced dementia-like symptoms. Certain medication can suppress the immune system.

12. Etc.
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Sources
(29) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18466323
(30) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22342535
(31) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22408297
(31a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21829284
(32) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22515730
(33) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16222166
(33a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1356316
(34) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20182054
(35) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14732624
(36) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22554780
(36a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21985858
(37) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21402242
(37a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19001887
(38) http://healthyliving50over.blogspot.ca/2012/04/delay-dementia-causes-of-dementia.html
(38a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22500273
(39) http://healthyliving50over.blogspot.ca/2012/05/environment-toxin-causes-of-dementia.html
(40) http://healthyliving50over.blogspot.ca/2012/05/substance-abuse-causes-of-dementia.html