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Tuesday, 3 December 2013

Colitis - The Antioxidants

Colitis is defined as a condition of inflammation of the large intestine, including the colon, caecum and rectum.
Antioxidants to prevent colitis
1. Selenium
Selenium deficiency may be implicated in the pathogenesis of some human diseases, including colon cancer. According to the study by Katedry i Zakładu Biochemii i Chemii AM, Katowicach-Ligocie, the inverse correlation between serum selenium concentration and the extension of the disease may be caused by a decreased absorption of selenium from the diseased colon in ulcerative colitis(70).

2. Tomato lycopene
In the study to investigate the effect of TLE on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced innate signaling and experimental colitis, indicate that TLE prevents LPS-induced proinflammatory gene expression by blocking of NF-kappaB signaling, but aggravates DSS-induced colitis by enhancing epithelial cell apoptosis(71).

3. Myricetin
In the study to assess the protective effect of myricetin administered orally at 200, 100 or 50 mg/kg for 10 days in a murine model of acute experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS), showed that treatment with myricetin ameliorated body weight loss in a dose-dependent manner and significantly reduced histology scores. Myricetin decreased the production of nitric oxide (NO), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA), while increasing the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px).  As it suggested that the anticolitis effects of myricetin may be attributed to anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions(72).

4. Vitamin E
As  a vitamin, vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant and a scavenger of hydroxyl radicals, and it has been shown to have anti-inflammatory activities in tissues. According to the study by Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, vitamin E administration suppressed these changes in the AA-induced colitis group (p < 0.001). Administration of AA resulted in increased levels of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde, and decreased levels of glutathione and superoxide dismutase; vitamin E reversed these effects (all p < 0.001)(73).

5. Melatonin (N-acetylcysteine)
In the study to  investigate the effects of melatonin (MT) on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in rat models of colitis, found that melatonin has a protective effect on colonic injury induced by both acetic acid and TNBS enemas, which is probably via a mechanism of local inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression in colonic mucosa(74). Other study also found that melatonin reduces colonic inflammatory injury through downregulating proinflammatory molecule mediated by NF-kappaB inhibition and blockade of IkappaBalpha degradation in rats with colitis(75).

6. N-acetyl-L-cysteine combined with mesalamine
According to the study by Universidad de Alcala, in the evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of oral N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) co-administration with mesalamine in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, found that Analysis per-protocol criteria showed clinical remission rates of 63% and 50% after 4 wk treatment with mesalamine plus N-acetyl-L-cysteine (group A) and mesalamine plus placebo (group B) respectively (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 0.46 to 6.36; P = 0.19; NNT = 7.7). Oral NAC combined with mesalamine contrarily to group B (mesalamine alone), the clinical improvement correlates with a decrease of chemokines such as MCP-1 and IL-8. NAC addition not produced any side effects(76).

7. Etc.
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Sources
(70) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1302352
(71) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19234608
(72) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23232835
(73) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21933527
(74) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12800246
(75) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16192667
(76) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18473409