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Tuesday, 3 December 2013

Cirrhosis - Conditions may be affected by Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis is defined as a condition of irreversible scarring liver as a result of liver tissue by fibrosis due to final phase of chronic liver diseases of that can lead to poor function of the liver and liver failure. According to the statistics, Number of discharges with chronic liver disease or cirrhosis as the first-listed diagnosis: 101,000 in 2009 and Deaths per 100,000 population: 10.3 in 2010(a). Hepatitis B infection cause of the disease is very prevalent in South-East Asia.
Conditions may be affected by Cirrhosis
1. Pregnancy
As the treatment of cirrhosis improves, pregnancy in patients with cirrhosis is likely to become more common. Although maternal and fetal mortality is expected to similarly improve, pregnant patients with cirrhosis face unique risks, including higher rates of spontaneous abortion and prematurity and a potential for life-threatening variceal hemorrhage, hepatic decompensation, splenic artery aneurysm rupture, and postpartum hemorrhage(40).

2. Malnutrition
In the study to assess of 212 hospitalized patients with liver cirrhosis who were followed clinically for 2 y or until death. Body fat and evaluate muscle mass by triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) and midarm muscle circumference (MAMC), respectively, showed that thirty-four percent of patients had severe malnutrition as determined by MAMC and/or TSF below the 5th percentile and 20% had moderate malnutrition (MAMC and/or TSF < 10th percentile). Twenty-six percent of patients were overnourished (MAMC and/or TSF > 75th percentile). Severely and moderately malnourished patients had lower survival rates than normal and overnourished patients(41).

3. Obese and diabetic individuals
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the Western world and its incidence is increasing rapidly. According to the study by Indiana University School of Medicine, indicated that NAFLD is a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis, which is relatively benign hepatically, to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which can progress to cirrhosis. Obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia are the most important risk factors for NAFLD. Due to heavy enrichment with metabolic risk factors, individuals with NAFLD are at significantly higher risk for cardiovascular disease. Individuals with NAFLD have higher incidence of type 2 diabetes(42).

4. Etc.
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Sources
(a) http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/liverdis.htm
(40) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18668664
(41) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11399401
(42) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23363012