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Saturday, 30 November 2013

Vertigo Treatments In Herbal medicine perspective

Vertigo is defined as a condition of dizziness of feeling of spinning, or swaying when one is stationary. Dizziness is a general, non-specific term to indicate a sense of disorientation. Some researchers suggested that vertigo is a subtype of dizziness and refers to an erroneous perception of self- or object-motion or an unpleasant distortion of static gravitational orientation that is a result of a mismatch between vestibular, visual, and somatosensory systems, affecting approximately 20-30% of the general population(1) and about two to three times higher in women than in men.
Treatments
In herbal medicine perspective
The aim of herbal treatment is to stop the symptoms of dizziness by opening up sinus and enhancing the circulation to the central nervous system ginkgo, ginger, hawthorn, and
1. Ginkgo
Gingko biloba has been used for hundreds of years to treat various disorders such as asthma, vertigo, fatigue and, tinnitus or circulatory problems. Two of the main extracts are EGb761 and LI 1370. Most pharmacological, toxicological and clinical studies have focused on the neuroprotective value of these two main extracts. Neuroprotection is a rapidly expanding area of research. This area is of particular interest due to the fact that it represents a new avenue of therapy for a frustrating disease that may progress despite optimal treatment(66).

2. Ginger 
In the study of 78 cases were randomly divided into 2 groups, of whom 40 were treated with jinger moxibustion and 38 treated with acupuncture, showed that showed a cure rate of 72.5% with a total effective rate of 97.5% in the jinger moxibustion (Ginger moxibustion) group, while 44.7% and 73.7% respectively in the acupuncture group(67).

3. Hawthorn
a. Hypotensive effects
In the investigation of Hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata) leaves, flowers and berries used by herbal practitioners in the UK to treat hypertension in conjunction with prescribed drugs indicated that this is the first randomised controlled trial to demonstrate a hypotensive effect of hawthorn in patients with diabetes takin, according to "Hypotensive effects of hawthorn for patients with diabetes taking prescription drugs: a randomised controlled trial" by Walker AF, Marakis G, Simpson E, Hope JL, Robinson PA, Hassanein M, Simpson HC(68)

b. Cardiac effects
In the evaluation of the potential cardiac effects of two alcohol extracts of commercially available hawthorn found that the mechanism of cardiac activity of hawthorn is via the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and intracellular calcium concentrations are influenced, according to "A comparison of the effects of commercially available hawthorn preparations on calcium transients of isolated cardiomyocytes" by Rodriguez ME, Poindexter BJ, Bick RJ, Dasgupta A.(69)

c. Cardiovascular disease
In the analyzing the effect of hawthorn in prevention and protection of cardiovascular disease indicated that these beneficial effects may in part be due to the presence of antioxidant flavonoid components. While a number of studies have been performed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of hawthorn, an international, multicenter, prospective clinical study including a large number of New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II/III heart failure patients is ongoing to test hawthorn's long-term therapeutic effects, according to "Hawthorn: potential roles in cardiovascular disease"by Chang WT, Dao J, Shao ZH.(70)

d. Hyperlipemia
in the determination of The Yishoujiangzhi (de-blood-lipid) tablets (composed of Radix Polygori Multiflori, Rhizoma Polygonati, Fructus Lycii, Crataegus Pinnatifida and Cassia Tora) and its effect on Hyperlipemia found that in the treatment of 130 cases of hyperlipemia, achieving an effective rate of 87.0% in lowering serum cholesterol and 80.8% in lowering triglyceride, according to 'Yishou jiangzhi (de-blood-lipid) tablets in the treatment of hyperlipemia" by Guan Y, Zhao S.(71)

4. Gotu kola
a. Hyperglycemia and hypertension
In the determination of the inhibitory potential of selected Malaysian plants, including pegaga (Centella asiatica) against key enzymes related to type 2 diabetes and hypertension, found that In alpha-amylase inhibition assay, the inhibitory potential was highest in pucuk ubi for both hexane (59.22%) and dichloromethane extract (54.15%). Hexane extract of pucuk ubi (95.01%) and dichloromethane extract of kacang botol (38.94%) showed the highest inhibitory potential against alpha-glucosidase, while in ACE inhibition assay, the inhibitory potential was highest in hexane extract of pegaga (48.45%) and dichloromethane extract of pucuk betik (59.77%), according to "In vitro inhibitory potential of selected Malaysian plants against key enzymes involved in hyperglycemia and hypertension" by Loh SP, Hadira O.(72)

b. Locomotor activity
In the investigation of the asiatic acid, a triterpenoids isolated from Centella asiatica and its inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) properties, excitatory post synaptic potential (EPSP) and locomotor activity. found that asiatic acid having an effect on AChE, a selective GABA(B) receptor agonist and no sedative effect on locomotor, according to "Inhibitory effect of asiatic acid on acetylcholinesterase, excitatory post synapticpotential and locomotor activity" by Nasir MN, Abdullah J, Habsah M, Ghani RI, Rammes G.(73)

c. Cognitive effects
In the assessment of the role of "Brahmi" (Bocopa monnieri and Centella asiatica) and its effect on the loss of memory, cognitive deficits, impaired mental function found that both plants possess neuroprotective properties, have nootropic activity with therapeutic implications for patients with memory loss. The field has witnessed exciting patent activity with most inventions aiming at either (i) improving the methods of herbal extraction or (ii) enrichment and purification of novel compounds from brahmi or (iii) providing novel synergistic formulations for therapeutics in various human ailments, according to "Exploring the role of "Brahmi" (Bocopa monnieri and Centella asiatica) in brain function and therapy" by Shinomol GK, Muralidhara, Bharath MM.(74)

d. Antioxidant capacity
In the identification of antioxidant effects of C. asiatica was exposed to various fermentations: no fermentation (0 min), partial fermentation (120 min) and full fermentation (24 h). Total phenolic content (TPC) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of C. asiatica, found that C. asiatica herbal teas should be prepared at 100 °C for 10 min to obtain the optimum antioxidant capacity. Multiple brewing steps in C. asiatica herbal tea are encouraged due to the certain amount of antioxidant obtained, according to "Antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of fermented Centella asiatica herbal teas" by Ariffin F, Heong Chew S, Bhupinder K, Karim AA, Huda N.(75)

5. Etc. 
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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22377855
(66) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22355250
(67) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16705845
(68) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16762125
(69) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19053860
(70) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15844828
(71) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8569253
(72) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22135867
(73) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22112723
(74) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22074576
(75) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21987075