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Saturday, 30 November 2013

Vertigo - The Diet against Vertigo

Vertigo is defined as a condition of dizziness of feeling of spinning, or swaying when one is stationary. Dizziness is a general, non-specific term to indicate a sense of disorientation. Some researchers suggested that vertigo is a subtype of dizziness and refers to an erroneous perception of self- or object-motion or an unpleasant distortion of static gravitational orientation that is a result of a mismatch between vestibular, visual, and somatosensory systems, affecting approximately 20-30% of the general population(1) and about two to three times higher in women than in men.
Diet against vertigo
1. Mushroom
Mushroom is a standard name of white button mushroom, the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus produced above ground on soil or on its food source, It is a genus A. Muscaria and belong to the family Amanitaceae and has been cultivation in many cultures all over the world for foods and health benefits.
a. Immunologic effects
In the analyzing White button mushrooms (WBM) and its effect in immune response, found that WBM promote DC maturation and enhance their antigen-presenting function. This effect may have potential in enhancing both innate and T cell-mediated immunity leading to a more efficient surveillance and defense mechanism against microbial invasion and tumor development, according to "White button mushroom enhances maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and their antigen presenting function in mice" by Ren Z, Guo Z, Meydani SN, Wu D.(36)

b. Neurotrophic action
Found that
the neurotrophic action of cobalamin (Cbl) in the central nervous system (CNS) of totally gastrectomized (TGX) rats is mediated by stimulation of the epidermal growth factor(EGF) synthesis in the CNS itself. It thus appears that Cbl inversely regulates the expression of EGF and TNF-alpha genes in the CNS of TGX rats, according to "Epidermal growth factor as a local mediator of the neurotrophic action of vitamin B(12) (cobalamin) in the rat central nervous system" by Scalabrino G, Nicolini G, Buccellato FR, Peracchi M, Tredici G, Manfridi A, Pravettoni G.(37)

c. Copper
Copper is best known for its function in regulating the proper growth, utilization of iron, it is also a strong antioxidant, aiding the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase, and preventing oxidation in the cell membrane, according to the article of antioxidant cancer and diseases, posted in(38)

d. Cholesterol Levels
Since it contains high amount of fiber, it not only helps to bind the bad cholesterol (LDL) in the digestive track then expelling them through normal waste release, but also burns cholesterol when they are digested because of its high lean protein content., according to the study of "Fiber intake, serum cholesterol levels, and cardiovascular disease in European individuals with type 1 diabetes. EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study Group" by Toeller M, Buyken AE, Heitkamp G, de Pergola G, Giorgino F, Fuller JH., (39)

e. Immune system
Since it contain high amount of vitamin C, it not only helps to improve the immune system in fighting against the foreign invasion, such as virus and bacteria, but also helps to inhibits fatty acid synthase expression as a result of the presence linoleic acid, thus reducing the risk of tumors and breast, colon and prostate cancers, according to the study of "The 10t,12c isomer of conjugated linoleic acid inhibits fatty acid synthase expression and enzyme activity in human breast, colon, and prostate cancer cells" by Lau DS, Archer MC.,(40)

2. Cabbage is a spicies of Brassica oleracea belong to the family Brassicaceae (or Cruciferae), native to the Mediterranean region along the seacoast. It has a short stem of which is crowded a mass of leaves, usually green but in some varieties, it may be red or purplish.
a. Cardiovascular health
Cabbage in steam cooking and other vegetable such as collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper has exerted the ability in lowering the recirculation of bile acids results in utilization of cholesterol to synthesize bile acid and reduced fat absorption and may be beneficial in preventing cardiovascular disease, cancer and improve public health, according to the study of "Steam cooking significantly improves in vitro bile acid binding of collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage" by Kahlon TS, Chiu MC, Chapman MH.(41)

b.  Vitamin K
Degenerative diseases of ageing
Long-term vitamin K inadequacy may reduce the function of supporting the carboxylation of at least some of these Gla-protein that can lead the development of degenerative diseases of ageing including osteoporosis and atherosclerosis, according to the study of "Vitamin K, osteoporosis and degenerative diseases of ageing" by Cees Vermeer and Elke Theuwissen(42)
c. Omega 3 fatty acid
Cabbage reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases by controlling the secretion of bad cholesterol, due to high amount of Omega 3 fatty acid, according to the study of "The Omega-3 Index as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases' by von Schacky C.(43)

3. Kiwifruit also best hnown as kiwi or Chinese gooseberry, is a species of A. chinensis belong to the family Actinidia, subgroup of the flavonoids and native to Southern China.
a. Type 2 diabetes
In the investigation of six kinds of fruits tested were grapes, Asian pears, guavas, golden kiwifruit, lychees and bananas and their glycemic index found that there was no significant difference in glycemic index values between healthy and Type 2 diabetes subjects. There was also no significant difference in PII when comparing healthy subjects and subjects with Type 2 diabetes and concluded that glycemic index and peak incremental indices in healthy subjects can be approximately the same for Type 2 diabetes, according to "Glycemia and peak incremental indices of six popular fruits in Taiwan: healthy and Type 2 diabetes subjects compared" by Chen YY, Wu PC, Weng SF, Liu JF.(44)

b. Vitamin C
Besides is essential in preventing the breaking off small vein cause of hardening of the vessel wall, vitamin C also improves the digestive system in maximum absorption of vital nutrients. Overdoses can cause diarrhea, It also plays an important role in enhancing immune system fighting against the forming of free radicals that cause muscle damage, according to the study of "Does antioxidant vitamin supplementation protect against muscle damage?" by McGinley C, Shafat A, Donnelly AE.,(45)

c. Antioxidants
 Since kiwifruit contains high amount of Vitamin C, it helps to enhance the immune function in fighting against forming of free radicals, thus reducing the risk of irregular cell growth, such as tumor and cancer, according to the study of "High-dose vitamin C (ascorbic acid) therapy in the treatment of patients with advanced cancer" by Ohno S, Ohno Y, Suzuki N, Soma G, Inoue M.(46)

4.  Olive Oil
Olive is belongs to the the family Oleaceae, native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin and south end of the Caspian Sea. Its fruit, is also called the olive and the source of olive oil.
a. Cardiovascular health
In the investigation of
the olive oil of the primary source of fat used in Mediterranean diet, found that olive oil consumption could contribute to explaining the low rate of cardiovascular mortality found in southern European-Mediterranean countries, according to "Olive oil and cardiovascular health" by Covas MI, Konstantinidou V, Fitó M.(47)

b. Antioxidants and weight loss
In the
analyzing the influence of a Mediterranean dietary pattern on plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) found that Mediterranean diet, especially rich in virgin olive oil, is associated with higher levels of plasma antioxidant capacity. Plasma TAC is related to a reduction in body weight after 3 years of intervention in a high cardiovascular risk population with a Mediterranean-style diet rich in virgin olive oil, according to "A 3 years follow-up of a Mediterranean diet rich in virgin olive oil is associated with high plasma antioxidant capacity and reduced body weight gain" by Razquin C, Martinez JA, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Mitjavila MT, Estruch R, Marti A.(48)

c. Healthy effect of virgin olive oil
According to "
International conference on the healthy effect of virgin olive oil" by

Perez-Jimenez F, Alvarez de Cienfuegos G, Badimon L, Barja G, Battino M, Blanco A, Bonanome A, Colomer R, Corella-Piquer D, Covas I, Chamorro-Quiros J, Escrich E, Gaforio JJ, Garcia Luna PP, Hidalgo L, Kafatos A, Kris-Etherton PM, Lairon D, Lamuela-Raventos R, Lopez-Miranda J, Lopez-Segura F, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Mata P, Mataix J, Ordovas J, Osada J, Pacheco-Reyes R, Perucho M, Pineda-Priego M, Quiles JL, Ramirez-Tortosa MC, Ruiz-Gutierrez V, Sanchez-Rovira P, Solfrizzi V, Soriguer-Escofet F, de la Torre-Fornell R, Trichopoulos A, Villalba-Montoro JM, Villar-Ortiz JR, Visioli F. indicated that
c.1. Ageing represents a great concern in developed countries because the number of people involved and the pathologies related with it, like atherosclerosis, morbus Parkinson, Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, cognitive decline, diabetes and cancer.
c.2. Epidemiological studies suggest that a Mediterranean diet (which is rich in virgin olive oil) decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease.
c.3. The Mediterranean diet, rich in virgin olive oil, improves the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as the lipoprotein profile, blood pressure, glucose metabolism and antithrombotic profile. Endothelial function, inflammation and oxidative stress are also positively modulated. Some of these effects are attributed to minor components of virgin olive oil. Therefore, the definition of the Mediterranean diet should include virgin olive oil.
c.4. Different observational studies conducted in humans have shown that the intake of monounsaturated fat may be protective against age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease.
c.5. Microconstituents from virgin olive oil are bioavailable in humans and have shown antioxidant properties and capacity to improve endothelial function. Furthermore they are also able to modify the haemostasis, showing antithrombotic properties.
c.6. In countries where the populations fulfilled a typical Mediterranean diet, such as Spain, Greece and Italy, where virgin olive oil is the principal source of fat, cancer incidence rates are lower than in northern European countries.
c.7. The protective effect of virgin olive oil can be most important in the first decades of life, which suggests that the dietetic benefit of virgin olive oil intake should be initiated before puberty, and maintained through life.
c.8. The more recent studies consistently support that the Mediterranean diet, based in virgin olive oil, is compatible with a healthier ageing and increased longevity. However, despite the significant advances of the recent years, the final proof about the specific mechanisms and contributing role of the different components of virgin olive oil to its beneficial effects requires further investigations.(49)
5. Lean beef are considered as animal fresh of which most fats are withdrawn before consuming to reduce the amount of sutured fat and cholesterol. Although some people insist that meats with fat are highly tasty, but the consequence of eating too much fat can damp the health of your body, leading to all kinds of diseases. Because of the use of growth hormone and selective breeding for commercial purposes, it is advised only eating lean meats from organic farm.
a. Nutrients
In the assessment of the nutrients in lean beef found that
Total beef consumed among adults 19 to 50 and 51+ years was 49.3 +/- 1.4 g (1.74 oz/d) and 37.1 +/- 1.2 g (1.31 oz/d), respectively. In adults 19 to 50 and 51+ years, LB contributed 3.9% and 3.7% to total energy; 4.5% and 4.1% to total fat, 3.8% and 3.6% to saturated fatty acids; 13% and 11% to cholesterol intake; 15% and 14% to protein; 25% and 20% to vitamin B(12); 23% and 20% to zinc; and 8% and 7% to iron, respectively. Beef was also an important food source of many other nutrients, including niacin, vitamin B(6), phosphorus, and potassium. In addition, beef provided only 1% of total sodium intake and concluded that Consumption of beef contributed significantly to intake of protein and other key nutrients by US adults, according to "Lean beef contributes significant amounts of key nutrients to the diets of US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004" by Zanovec M, O'Neil CE, Keast DR, Fulgoni VL 3rd, Nicklas TA.(50)
b. Cardiovascular health
In the examination of
the effects of dietary protein intake on energy restriction (ER)-induced changes in body mass and body composition found that overweight postmenopausal women can achieve significant weight loss and comparable short-term improvements in body composition and lipid-lipoprotein profile by consuming either a moderate-protein (25% of energy intake) poultry- or beef-containing diet or a lacto-ovo vegetarian protein (17% of energy intake) diet, according to "Protein intake during energy restriction: effects on body composition and markers of metabolic and cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women" by
Mahon AK, Flynn MG, Stewart LK, McFarlin BK, Iglay HB, Mattes RD, Lyle RM, Considine RV, Campbell WW.(51)
c. Diabetes
In random sequence, 50 g protein in the form of very lean beef or only water at 0800 h and studied over the subsequent 8 h found that the amount of glucose appearing in the circulation was only approximately 2 g. The peripheral plasma glucose concentration decreased by approximately 1 mM after ingestion of either protein or water, confirming that ingested protein does not result in a net increase in glucose concentration, and results in only a modest increase in the rate of glucose disappearance, according to "Effect of protein ingestion on the glucose appearance rate in people with type 2 diabetes" by Gannon MC, Nuttall JA, Damberg G, Gupta V, Nuttall FQ.(52)
d. Improve the nutrient transportation
The high levels of iron helps in maintaining high levels of energy and oxygen through the bloodstream as it enhances the function of blood in oxygen absorption, reduces the risk of iron deficiency anemia and improves the menstrual health for teenage girls and women in their child-bearing years, according to the study of "[Menstrual blood loss and iron nutritional status in female undergraduate students].[Article in Chinese]" by Li J, Gao Q, Tian S, Chen Y, Ma Y, Huang Z., posted in PubMed(53)
6. Sardines are several types of small, salt-water, soft-boned small oily fish in the family Clupeidae. There are as many as 21 species can be classified as sardines and their main food is plankton on the surface of the water. They are commercially fished for foods and variety of uses, including animal feed, sardine oil used in manufacture paint, varnish and linoleum.
a.  cardiovascular diseases
In the investigation of the nutritional benefits of fish consumption relate to the utilization of proteins of high biological value, as well as certain minerals and vitamins of fish found that The top 11 fish species [e.g., sardines, mackerel, herring (Atlantic and Pacific), lake trout, salmon (Chinook, Atlantic, and Sockeye), anchovy (European), sablefish, and bluefish] provide an adequate amount of omega-3 PUFAs (2.7-7.5g/meal) and appear to meet the nutritional recommendation of the American Heart Association, according to "Health benefits and potential risks related to consumption of fish or fish oil" by Sidhu KS.(54)

b. Cardiometabolic syndrome
In the research of Ogema 3 fatty acids (Found abundantly in sardine) and its effect in reducing cardiometabolic syndrome risk factors found that consumption of fish or fish oil containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces the risk of coronary heart disease, decreases triglyceride, blood pressure, and inflammatory markers, improves endothelial function, prevents certain cardiac arrhythmias, reduces platelet aggregation (including reactivity and adhesion), reduces vasoconstriction, enhances fibrinolysis, reduces fibrin formation, and decreases the risk of microalbuminuria and sudden cardiac death. Thus, fish intake or fish oil supplement use is beneficial to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors, according to "Omega-3 fatty acids and the cardiometabolic syndrome" by Juturu V.(55)

c. Glucose tolerance
In the observation of an enzymatic hydrolysate of sardine protein (sardine peptide, SP) derived from sardine muscle possesses angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, found that treatment with SP and captopril decreased ACE activity in the kidney, aorta, and mesentery. SP and captopril administration significantly suppressed the increase in blood glucose after glucose loading in the control SHRSPs, according to "Sardine peptide with angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity improves glucose tolerance in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats" by Otani L, Ninomiya T, Murakami M, Osajima K, Kato H, Murakami T.(56)

d. Anti-Hyperleptinemia and anti- inflammation
In the exploring the effects of sardine protein on insulin resistance, plasma lipid profile, as well as oxidative and inflammatory status in rats with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome found that Sardine protein diets also prevented hyperleptinemia and reduced inflammatory status in comparison with rats fed casein diets, according to "Dietary sardine protein lowers insulin resistance, leptin and TNF-α and beneficially affects adipose tissue oxidative stress in rats with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome" by Madani Z, Louchami K, Sener A, Malaisse WJ, Ait Yahia D.(57)
7. Etc.
 
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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22377855

(36) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18287364
(37) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10544191
(38) http://the-anti-aging-guide.blogspot.ca/2011/03/anti-aging-guide.html
(39) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10097895
(40) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20043266
(41) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19083431
(42) http://mi.rsmjournals.com/content/17/1/19.abstract
(43) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21726658
(44) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22128219
(45) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19902983
(46)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22009132
(47) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19858733
(48) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19707219
(49) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16008542
(50) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20650344
(51) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17536130
(52) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11238483
(53) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21560310
(54) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Sardines%20and%20heart%20health
(55) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19040594
(56) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19809178
(57) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22085913