V. A. Upper respiratory tract infection
Upper respiratory tract infections are considered to be the infection of the airway above the glottis or vocal cords. This includes the nose, sinuses, pharynx, and larynx, including the infection of tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, sinusitis, otitis media, etc,.
C. Types of Upper respiratory infection
Rhinitis is defined as a condition of irritation and inflammation of the nasal mucosa. In most case, it is caused by allergic reaction, with symptoms of stuffy nose, runny nose, and post-nasal drip. According to the article of Economic Impact and Quality-of-Life Burden of Allergic Rhinitis, the disease affects over 30% of US population(8).
2. Rhinosinusitis or sinusitis
Rhinosinusitis or Sinusitis(9) is defined as a condition of inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, including frontal, ethmoid, maxillary, and sphenoid of which can develop headache as a result of exposure to a cold or flu virus, or an allergic reaction to pollen, mold, dust or smoke, etc..Sinusitis affects 37 million people each year. The diseases affects more than 24 million population in U.S. annually(10).
Also known as rhinopharyngitis or the common cold s defined as a Inflammation of the inflammation of the nasopharynx. Symptoms of can be relieved in children, by acetaminophen without any combination is as effective as OTC drugs containing acetaminophen, decongestant, and antihistaminics(11).
Pharyngitis, also known as sore throat is defined as a condition of inflammation of the pharynx, hypopharynx, uvula, and tonsils. The application of laripront has been reported as the positive outcome of the treatment in children that was especially efficacions in the patients with acute pathologies(12).
5. Epiglottitis (supraglottitis)
Epiglottitis is defined as a condition of inflammation of the tissue that covers the trachea (windpipe). Epiglottitis, in some some can be misdiagnosed with other disease, such as acute laryngo-tracheo-bronchitis. There is a report of a the case of a 20-month-old child who required admission to the intensive care with a presumptive diagnosis of acute laryngo-tracheo-bronchitis, for the management of acute upper airway obstruction. This child had received a complete course of Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) vaccine. Subsequent events showed that the diagnosis was not laryngo-tracheo-bronchitis but acute epiglottitis(13).
Laryngitis is defined as condition of inflammation of the larynx. The disease can cause hoarse voice or the complete loss of the voice as it affects the vocal cords. Antibiotics appear to have no benefit in treating acute laryngitis, but antibiotic such as Erythromycin, could reduce voice disturbance at one week and cough at two weeks when measured subjectively(14).
Laryngotracheitis is defined as conditions of inflammation of the laryngitis and tracheitis. Many practitioners have considered that steroids, with their anti-inflammatory properties, should be efficacious in the treatment of acute laryngotracheitis(15).
Tracheitis is defined as a condition of inflammation of the trachea and subglottic area. Bacterial tracheitis needs a high index of suspicion because of its varied presentations. Certain forms have less severe clinical manifestations. These forms also require aggressive management as they can result in airway obstruction from membranes and edema(16).
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