Thyroid disease is defined as a condition of malfunction of thyroid.
Thyroid adenoma is a benign tumor started in the layer of cell lined the inner surface of the thyroid gland. The disease are relatively common among adults living in the United States. According to the study by the Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, there is a report of 4 patients described in whom a follicular carcinoma developed following thyroidectomy for a benign follicular neoplasm. Most thyroid nodules are Thyroid adenoma.
F.1. In conventional medicine perspective
1, Watchful waiting
In most cases of a benign thyroid nodule, as a result of fine-needle aspiration biopsy differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules, your doctor may suggest only simply watching your condition with regular interval physical exam and thyroid function tests(39).
2. Thyroid hormone suppression therapy such as Levoxyl, Synthroid
In the valuation of the effect of THST on the clinical outcomes of papillary and/or follicular ThyrCa, showed that out of 4, 174 patients with ThyrCa, 2, 880 (69%) were reported as being on THST. Meta-analysis showed that the group of patients who received THST had a decreased risk of major adverse clinical events (RR = 0.73; Cl = 0.60-0.88; P < 0.05). Further, by applying a Likert scale, 15/17 interpretable studies showed either a 'likely' or 'questionable' beneficial effect of THST. Assessment of causality between TSHT and reduction of major adverse clinical events suggested a probable association(40).
3. Radiofrequency ablation
adiofrequency ablation is an effective and well tolerated treatment option for benign thyroid nodules. Radiofrequency ablation of recurrent thyroid cancers may be an alternative to surgery in patients at high surgical risk(41).
If the tumor is growth large enough to interfere with function of nearby tissues or organs, surgery may be necessary.
5. In case of nodules that cause hyperthyroidism
a. Radioactive iodine
In the study of the thyroid glands from 20 euthyroid patients and 20 hyperthyroid patients, all of which had been treated with radioactive iodine, showed that almost all the euthyroid glands displayed a fibrotic atrophic pattern, whereas the glands from the Graves' disease patients showed more adenomatous and Hashimoto lesions than atrophy(42).
b. Medication such as methimazole (MMI) and propylthiouracil (PTU)
The aim of the medication is to reduce the symptoms of the disease with serious side effect
In some case, if treatment with radioactive iodine or anti-thyroid medications has not been effective or an option, surgery may be necessary.
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