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Thursday, 28 November 2013

Thyroid disease: Hypothyroidism – The Symptoms

Thyroid disease is defined as a condition of malfunction of thyroid. Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland is over active and produces too much thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland is under active and produces very little thyroid hormones.
A. Symptoms
Symptoms of the Hypothyroidism is depended to the severe stage of the disease. as it progresses slowly over years. Most common symptoms include
1. Weight gain and fatigue
In a prospective observational research design where 198 consecutive breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy were monitored from start to end and 6 months post-therapy on changes in anthropometics, fatigue, nutritional intake, physical activity, thyroid and steroid hormones, found that a weight gain over >5 lb in 22.2% of this patient population with a significant and progressive gain of 6.7 lb (P < 0.0001) at 6 months. Ninety four percent of all patients reported fatigue and 56% of patients reported lowered physical activity. A significant reduction in serum free and total estradiol (P < 0.0001) was observed indicative of reduction in ovarian function with 86% amenorrehic at the end of treatment. A significant reduction in mean serum triiodothyronine uptake levels (P < 0.05), in addition to a significant increase in TBG (P < 0.0001) from baseline to end of chemotherapy, was observed. In addition 20-25% of this patient group was already diagnosed with clinical hypothyroidism at diagnosis and treated. Changes in fatigue frequency and serum sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were variables significantly predictive of weight gain (P < 0.0001)(1).
2. Vitiligo and alopecia areata
There is a report of the parents of an 18-year-old woman had noticed white hair while combing their daughter's hair 12 years ago. They found tiny white spots on her scalp, but she was asymptomatic. The spots have since progressed. Examination of the affected skin on the scalp was marked by the presence of a chalky/ivory white macule, 8 to 10 cm in diameter, conforming to that of segmental (zosteriformis) vitiligo (Figure 1). The lesions were located on the temporoparietal region of the scalp. The hair over the macules was white (leukotrichia) and dry, coarse, and brittle. The patient's nails were thin and dull. Her thyroid profile revealed the following: triiodothyronine, 1.12 nmol/L (0.95-2.5 nmol/L); thyroxine, 69.21 nmol/L (60.0-120.0 nmol/L); and thyroid-stimulating hormone, 6.26 microIU/mL (0.25-5.00 microIU/mL), indicative of primary hypothyroidism(2).
3. Chronic constipation
Geriatric patient educational material and a general practice review suggest insufficient dietary fiber intake, inadequate fluid intake, decrease physical activity, side effects of drugs, hypothyroidism, sex hormones and colorectal cancer obstruction may play a role in the pathogenesis of constipation, according to the study by the University of California at Los Angele(3).
4. Urticaria and puffiness of hands and feet, yellow ivory skin, coarse rough dry skin, alopecia periorbital edema, amenorrhe, dysparunia, PCO, PMS and Breast tenderness, menstrual irregularities and infertility
In the study to study is to highlight the presenting dermatologic and gynecologic manifestations of firstly-diagnosed hypothyroid females, showed that Compared to euthyroid cases, hypothyroid ones were presenting mostly with amenorrhea (OR=7.76). Other gynecologic manifestations that were prominent in hypothyroid cases were dysparunia, PCO, PMS and Breast tenderness. On the other hand, rate of menstrual irregularities and infertility were non-significantly different in both groups.hypothyroid women showed also significantly higher frequency of urticaria and puffiness of hands and feet (both were present in 16.7% in hypothyroid vs. 3.3% of euthyroid cases, p =0.007, OR=5.8). Hypothyroid cases showed also significantly higher frequency of yellow ivory skin (OR=5.4) and coarse rough dry skin (OR=3.8). On the other hand, alopecia and periorbital edema were observed only among cases of hypothyroidsm and none of euthyroid cases(4).
5. Depression
In the study to investigate the depression-like behavior performances of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) rat. SCH rat model induced by hemi-thyroid electrocauterization, and the behavior performances were measured by sucrose preference test, force swimming test (FST), and tail suspension test (TST). SCH rat model was established successfully by hemi-thyroid electrocauterization, found that SCH could result in depression-like behavior, accompanied with subtle hyperactivity of HPA axis. The reduced hippocampal T3 prior to the reduction of thyroid hormone in serum might be taken as an early sign of hippocampus impairment in the progression from SCH to CH(5).
6. Mood, declarative memory, motor learning and working memory
In a double-blinded, randomized, cross-over study of usual dose l-T(4) (euthyroid arm) vs. higher dose l-T(4) (subclinical thyrotoxicosis arm) in hypothyroid subjects, showed that The Profile of Mood States (POMS) confusion, depression, and tension subscales were improved during the subclinical thyrotoxicosis arm. Motor learning was better during the subclinical thyrotoxicosis arm, whereas declarative and working memory measures did not change. This improvement was related to changes in the SF-36 physical component summary and POMS tension subscales and free T(3) levels(6).
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Sources
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17933284
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14997046
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21675503
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17219073
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21475555
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23794115
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18285414