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Thursday, 28 November 2013

Thyroid Disease : Hashimoto’s thyroiditis – The Risk factors

Thyroid disease is defined as a condition of malfunction of thyroid. Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland is over active and produces too much thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland is under active and produces very little thyroid hormones. Thyroid cancer is defined as condition in which the cells in the thyroid gland have become cancerous.
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis)
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the thyroid gland of that mostly often leads an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism). According to the study by the University of Pisa, Women with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) suffer from a high symptom load independently from hypothyroidism, which results just a contributing factor to the development of the clinical syndrome. In agreement with these results, we recently reported on the presence of symptoms and signs consistent with fibromyalgia (FM) in patients with HT regardless thyroid dysfunction, focusing to the weight of anti-thyroid autoimmunity in the HT-associated clinical syndrome(a).
B.2. Risk factors
1. Childhood weight gain and childhood overweight
Childhood weight gain and childhood overweight conferred an increased susceptibility to later hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity, particularly in women, according to the study by the Medical Research Council Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing(5).
2. Genetic factors
In the study to evaluate the relationship between CTLA-4 polymorphisms (A49G, 1822 C/T and CT60 A/G) and HT and/or GD in Polish patients, showed that CTLA-4 A49G polymorphism seems to be an important genetic determinant of the risk of HT and GD in Polish patients(6).
3. Female
In the study to investigate thyroid autoimmunity in a very large nationwide cohort of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes, showed that patients with thyroid antibodies were significantly older (P < 0.001), had a longer duration of diabetes (P < 0.001), and developed diabetes later in life (P < 0.001) than those without antibodies. A total of 63% of patients with positive antibodies were girls, compared with 45% of patients without antibodies (P < 0.001)(7).
4. Other risk factors
According to the study by the Kaunas University of Medicine, pregnancy, drugs, age, sex, infection, and irradiation may be associated to the risk factors of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT)(8).
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Sources
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22147633
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23436917
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22851994
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12145233
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19667753