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Thursday, 28 November 2013

Thyroid Disease : Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis) – The Symptoms

Thyroid is one of the largest endocrine glands found in the neck, below the Adam’s Apple with the function of regulating the body use of energy, make of proteins by producing its hormones as a result of the stimulation of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) produced by the anterior pituitary.
Thyroid disease is defined as a condition of malfunction of thyroid. Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland is over active and produces too much thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland is under active and produces very little thyroid hormones. Thyroid cancer is defined as condition in which the cells in the thyroid gland have become cancerous.
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis)
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the thyroid gland of that mostly often leads an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism). According to the study by the University of Pisa, Women with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) suffer from a high symptom load independently from hypothyroidism, which results just a contributing factor to the development of the clinical syndrome. In agreement with these results, we recently reported on the presence of symptoms and signs consistent with fibromyalgia (FM) in patients with HT regardless thyroid dysfunction, focusing to the weight of anti-thyroid autoimmunity in the HT-associated clinical syndrome(a).
A. Symptoms
1. Dysphagia, shortness of breath, voice changes, and odynophagia
In the study to review the data of patients who underwent thyroidectomy from 2005 through 2009, by the Medical University of South Carolina, showed that in three hundred thirty-three patients were identified. The mean age was 51 years, and 82% were female. Fifty-two percent (n=172) of patients experienced compressive symptoms preoperatively, including dysphagia (n=131) and shortness of breath (n=83). Twenty-six percent (n=86) of patients presented with voice changes, and 8% (n=27) complained of odynophagia(1).
2. Anxiety, negative mood, depression, dry skin, cold intolerance, puffy eyes, muscle cramps and fatigue, deep voice, constipation, slow thinking and poor memory.
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is a common auto-immune disorder. The most common presenting symptoms may include anxiety, negative mood, depression, dry skin, cold intolerance, puffy eyes, muscle cramps and fatigue, deep voice, constipation, slow thinking and poor memory, according to the study by the Leiden University Medical Center(2).
3. General health and overall quality of life
Women with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) also with positive anti-TPO titer are experience to a significantly higher prevalence of general health symptoms as compared to those without HT. Besides the histological thyroiditis grade, anti-TPO levels were positively correlated with the symptom score(2a).
4. Other symptoms
There is a report of a case of an 11 years old girl who presented with history of swelling in front of the neck along with constipation, anorexia, weight gain and increasing pallor over a period of six months. Additionally she had an episodic history of joint pains and abdominal pain with no specific relation to diet, time, other gastrointestinal or genitourinary symptom. Hypothyroid goiter (Autoimmune thyroiditis, Hashimoto’s thyroidits) was diagnosed by raised thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), low T4 and presence of thyroid specific antibodies in blood(2b).
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Sources
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22147633
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22191404
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23744563
(2a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21112862
(2b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21381622