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Monday, 11 November 2013

Supper Foods - Wolfberry


Wolfberry is the common name for the fruit of two very closely related species, the genus of Lycium, belong to family Solanaceae, native to native to southeastern Europe and Asia.

Nutrients
1. Fat
2. Protein
3. Sugar
4. thiamine
5. riboflavin
6. Calcium
7. Riboflavin
8. Iron
9. Phosperous
10. Betaine
11. β-sitosterol
12. Amino acids
13. Carotene
14. Lutein
15. Linoleic acid
16. Cryptoxanthin
17. Zeaxanthin
18. Etc.

Health benefits
A. Health benefits according to researches
1. Cholesterol
In the comparison of herbal extract SR10 of Radix Astragali, Radix Codonopsis and Cortex Lycii and its effect on lipoprotein oxidation found that SR10 inhibited erythrocyte hemolysis with IC50 value at 0.25 mg/ml and significantly prolonged low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro. SR10 attenuated platelet derived growth factor-BB-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by promoting cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase as well as inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell migration. according to "Suppression of low-density lipoprotein oxidation, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration by a herbal extract of Radix Astragali, Radix Codonopsis and Cortex Lycii" by Chan JY, Koon JC, Leung PC, Che CT, Fung KP.(a)

2. Cervical cancer
In the evaluation of the cytotoxic and antiproliferative effect of 2-O-β-D-Glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2βG) against cancer cells in wolfberry found that AA-2βG and vitamin C mediated antitumor activity by downregulating the expression of proteins involved in cell apoptosis and proliferation and consequently inducing Hela cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, suggesting that AA-2βG and vitamin C may share a similar mechanism of inducing Hela cell apoptosis, according to "Selective suppression of cervical cancer Hela cells by 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid isolated from the fruit of Lycium barbarum L" by Zhang Z, Liu X, Wu T, Liu J, Zhang X, Yang X, Goodheart MJ, Engelhardt JF, Wang Y.(b)

3. Anticancer and immunomodulatory effects
In the classification of the anticancer effects of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) used in cancer therapies found that major active ingredients, L. barbarum polysaccharides (LBP), scopoletin and 2-O-β-D: -glucopyranosyl-L: -ascorbic acid (AA-2βG), are found to have apoptotic and antiproliferative effects on cancer cell lines. Moreover, LBP also contributes to body's immunomodulatory effects and enhances effects of other cancer therapies. It is not known whether there are any undesirable effects, according to "A review of the anticancer and immunomodulatory effects of Lycium barbarum fruit" by Tang WM, Chan E, Kwok CY, Lee YK, Wu JH, Wan CW, Chan RY, Yu PH, Chan SW.(c)

4. Hypochlolesterolemic and antioxidative effects
In the researches of the hypocholesterolemic effect and potential of tyramine derivatives from Lycii Cortex Radicis (LCR), the root bark of lycium (Lycium chenese Miller) in reducing lipid peroxidation found that The level of liver cholesterol was significantly lower in LCR1 and LCR2 groups than HF-control. Serum levels of TBARS were significantly lower only in LCR2 group when compared with HF-control group. From the observed results, we concluded that LCR can be utilized as a hypocholesterolemic ingredient in combination with ginger, especially for functional foods, according to "Study on the hypochlolesterolemic and antioxidative effects of tyramine derivatives from the root bark of Lycium chenese Miller" by Cho SH, Park EJ, Kim EO, Choi SW.(d)

5. Liver inflammation and fibrosis
In the elavuation of the effects of water extracted Lycium barbarum and Rehmannia glutinosa (HE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver injury in rats found that treatment with water extracted Lycium barbarum and Rehmannia glutinosa (0.05% and 0.15% for each) for eight weeks protects against necrotic damage, indicated by decreases in plasma ALT and AST activities, and suppresses liver fibrosis by down-regulation of liver inflammation in rats with CCl(4)-induced liver injury, according to "Hot water extracted Lycium barbarum and Rehmannia glutinosa inhibit liver inflammation and fibrosis in rats" by
Wu PS, Wu SJ, Tsai YH, Lin YH, Chao JC.(e)

6. Testicular oxidative stress
In the determination of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) and its protective effect against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced testicular toxicity confirmed that LBP effectively attenuated DOX-induced severe degenerative changes of seminiferous tubules. This study illustrated the capability of LBP in attenuating testicular oxidative stress and protecting testis-specific toxicity in DOX-exposed rats(f)

7. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Vitamin C
a. Asthma
Vitamin C is one of the key antioxidant vitamins which is abundant in the extracellular fluid lining the lung and low vitamin C intake has been associated with pulmonary dysfunction, such as asthma, according to the study of "Vitamin C supplementation for asthma" by Kaur B, Rowe BH, Arnold E.(1)
b. DNA Damage
Ascorbic acid (AA), known as vitamin C, has important antioxidant vitamin has exerted the activity in preventing (imazalil)IMA-induced cause of DNA damage, according to the stuyd of "The protective role of ascorbic acid on imazalil-induced genetic damage assessed by the cytogenetic tests' by Türkez H, Aydin E.(2)

2. Vitamin A
Vitamin A is not only important in preventing types I diabetes, according to "A close relationship between type 1 diabetes and vitamin A-deficiency and matrix metalloproteinase and hyaluronidase activities in skin tissues" by Takahashi N, Takasu S.(5) but also may be associated with compromised bone health, according to "Vitamins and bone health: beyond calcium and vitamin D" by Ahmadieh H, Arabi A.(4)

3. Vitamin B2
Vitamin B2 or Riboflavin is one of very important vitamin in metabolism of energy by helping the transforming of fats, proteins and carbohydrates and high dose riboflavin appears to be useful alone or along with beta-blockers in the prevention of migraine, according to the study of "Effectiveness of high-dose riboflavin in migraine prophylaxis. A randomized controlled trial" by Schoenen J, Jacquy J, Lenaerts M., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9484373)

4. Iron
Beside as a mineral in carrying life-giving oxygen to human blood cells and maintaining robust health as an essential protein component for metabolism, it also helps in synthesis of a number of essential neurotransmitters like dopamine, nor-epinephrine, along with serotonin. acccording to the study of "Brain Iron Dysregulation and the Risk of Ageing White Matter Lesions" by Gebril OH, Simpson JE, Kirby J, Brayne C, Ince PG., posted in PubMed, researchers found that The mRNA expression using QPCR suggests a pattern that favours decreased intracellular iron influx, increased ferrous oxidation and increased iron export from the cells. Iron metabolism seems to be changed in brains with WML, increased elemental iron in these brains and in turn increased production of free oxidative radicals could represent a potentiating factor for the development of ageing WML.

5. Betaine
In the assessment of investigate the effect of betaine on the hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) mRNA expression in orotic acid (OA)-induced fatty liver in rats, found that the hepatocytes contained numerous largely fat droplets induced by OA administration and was slightly reduced by simultaneous supplementation of OA and betaine, according to "Effect of betaine on the hepatic damage from orotic acid-induced fatty liver development in rats" by Cha JY, Kim HS, Moon HI, Cho YS.(5)

6. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Eyes
Lutein and zeaxanthin beside protect the eyes from damaging sun rays, it also reduces the risk of macular degeneration due to depletion of carotenoids, according to "Fasting plasma zeaxanthin response to Fructus barbarum L. (wolfberry; Kei Tze) in a food-based human supplementation trial" by Chung Yuen Cheng, Wai Yuen Chung, Yim Tong Szeto and Iris F. F. Benzie(I)

2. Anti aging
In the investigation of the aqueous extract isolated from L. barbarum exhibited significant protection on cultured neurons against harmful chemical toxins found that since the phosphorylation state of PKR increased with age, reduction of its phosphorylation triggered by A beta peptide may implicate that LBP-III from Fructus lycii is a potential neuroprotective agent in AD., according to "Characterization of the effects of anti-aging medicine Fructus lycii on beta-amyloid peptide neurotoxicity" by Yu MS, Lai CS, Ho YS, Zee SY, So KF, Yuen WH, Chang RC.(II)

3. Menstrual cycle
Since wolfberry contains high amount of phytoestrogen that helps to occupy the estrogen receptors sites, leading to reducing the estrogen produced by the body in the start of menstrual cycle, thus decreasing the risk of menstrual cramps and pains.

4. Skin
Linoleic acid is used to treat inflammation of the skin as well reducing the risk of skin tumor, according to "Linoleic acid metabolite suppresses skin inflammation and tumor promotion in mice: possible roles of programmed cell death 4 induction" by Yasuda M, Nishizawa T, Ohigashi H, Tanaka T, Hou DX, Colburn NH, Murakami A.(III)

5. Free radicals
In the observation of protective effects against oxidative stress in liver tissues of test mice of aqueous extract of Lycium barbarum (LBAE) and ethanol extract of Lycium barbarum (LBEE) found the extracts reduce liver damage and oxidative changes, according to "Effects of lycium barbarum aqueous and ethanol extracts on high-fat-diet induced oxidative stress in rat liver tissue" by Cui B, Liu S, Lin X, Wang J, Li S, Wang Q, Li S.(IV)

6. Neuroprotective effects
LBA exerted neuroprotective effects on cortical neurons exposed to Hcy which can increase the risk of Alzheime's disease (AD) if it is elevated, according to "Neuroprotective effects of polysaccharides from wolfberry, the fruits of Lycium barbarum, against homocysteine-induced toxicity in rat cortical neurons" by Ho YS, Yu MS, Yang XF, So KF, Yuen WH, Chang RC.(V)

7. Etc.

Side effects
1. Overdose can increase bleeding
2. It may inhibit warfarin metabolism
3. Etc.
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Sources
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21513503
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20717715
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22189914
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22125678
(e) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22083989(f) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22016089

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19160185
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21986888
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19160185
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21967159
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22149312

(I) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15705234(II) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17611646
(III) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19414503
(IV) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22045040
(V) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20157238