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Monday, 11 November 2013

Superfoods - Uncontaminated Fish Oil

Uncontaminated fish oil is oil derived from the tissues of oily fish, excluding fish which are contaminated and at the top of the food chain. Fish do not actually produce omega-3 fatty acids, but instead accumulate them from either consuming microalgae that produce these fatty acids.

Nutrients
1. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
2. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
3. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
4. Gamma-linolenic acid or (GLA)
5. Etc.

Health benefits
A. Health benefits according researches
1. Inflammatory effect
In the comparison of fish and flaxseed oil and their inflammatory effect found that Dietary supplementation with omega-3 PUFA derived from fish, but not from vegetable sources, increased plasma adiponectin, suppressed inflammation, and prevented cardiac remodelling and dysfunction under pressure overload conditions, according to "Fish oil, but not flaxseed oil, decreases inflammation and prevents pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction" by Duda MK, O'Shea KM, Tintinu A, Xu W, Khairallah RJ, Barrows BR, Chess DJ, Azimzadeh AM, Harris WS, Sharov VG, Sabbah HN, Stanley WC.(a)

2. Cardioprotective effects
In the investigation of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from fish oil and theirs effect on heart failure through alterations in cardiac phospholipids found that Fish oil limited LV hypertrophy on the standard diet, and prevented upregulation of fetal genes associated with heart failure (myosin heavy chain-beta and atrial natriuetic factor). These beneficial effects of fish oil were absent in animals on the high-fat diet. In conclusion, whereas treatment with EPA+DHA prevented tetralinoloyl cardiolipin depletion, LV hypertrophy, and abnormal genes expression with pressure overload, these effects were absent with a high-fat diet. according to "The cardioprotective effects of fish oil during pressure overload are blocked by high fat intake: role of cardiac phospholipid remodeling." by Shah KB, Duda MK, O'Shea KM, Sparagna GC, Chess DJ, Khairallah RJ, Robillard-Frayne I, Xu W, Murphy RC, Des Rosiers C, Stanley WC.(b)

3. Cardiac function
In the evaluation of fish oil, seal oil, or shark liver oil and theirs effect on lipid and fatty-acid composition found that direct supplementation of cultured guinea pig myocytes for 2-3 weeks with EPA or DHA produced changes in the PUFA profiles of their TPL that were qualitatively similar to those observed in tissue from the dietary study. The factors that regulate specific deposition of n-3 PUFA from either dietary oils or individual PUFA are not yet known, however the differences that we observed could in some manner be related to cardiac function and thus their relative potentials as health-promoting dietary fats, according to "Diets enriched in menhaden fish oil, seal oil, or shark liver oil have distinct effects on the lipid and fatty-acid composition of guinea pig heart" by Murphy MG, Wright V, Ackman RG, Horackova M.(c)

4. Antiarrhythmic actions
In the research of regular intake of dietary fish oil and its effect on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality found that the preferential accumulation of DHA in myocardial cell membranes, its association with arrhythmia prevention, and the selective ability of pure DHA to prevent ventricular fibrillation all point to DHA as the active component of fish oil. The antiarrhythmic effect of dietary fish oil appears to depend on the accumulation of DHA in myocardial cell membranes, according to "Myocardial membrane fatty acids and the antiarrhythmic actions of dietary fish oil in animal models" by McLennan PL.(d)

5. Cognitive function
In the study of the role of dietary PUFA in growth, development, and cognitive function in the infant found that cognitive function of the aging brain can be preserved, or loss of function can be diminished with docosahexaenoic acid, a long-chain (n-3) PUFA. Furthermore, no symposia have taken a serious look at the impact of (n-6) PUFA on the brain, in particular arachidonic acid (AA), the most highly concentrated (n-6) PUFA in the brain, according to "(n-6) and (n-3) Polyunsaturated fatty acids and the aging brain: food for thought" by Whelan J.(e)

6. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
a. Cerebral vasospasm
In the observation of
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and its effect on cerebral vasospasm following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in the rabbit found that ALA treatment attenuates the severity of cerebral vasospasm by its strong antioxidant, antivasospastic and antiapoptotic properties. ALA may potentially serve as agents in the prevention of cerebral vasospasm after SAH, according to "The effects of alpha lipoic Acid on cerebral vasospasm following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in the rabbit" by Erdi MF, Guney O, Kiyici A, Esen H.(1)

b. Cardiovascular health
In the evaluation of
alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), a the omega-3 fatty acid and its effect on cardiovascular health found that long-term trials of ALA supplementation are awaited to answer the question whether food-based or higher doses of ALA could be important for cardiovascular health in cardiac patients and the general population, according to "Alpha-linolenic acid: is it essential to cardiovascular health?" by Geleijnse JM, de Goede J, Brouwer IA.(2)

c. Cholesterol
In the comparison of dietary alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) fatty acid composition found thatDietary intake of ALA, EPA or DHA led to a significant enrichment of the respective fatty acid in the LDL particles, with dietary EPA preferentially incorporated. In the context of a monounsaturated fatty acid-rich diet, ALA enrichment did not enhance LDL oxidizability, whereas the effects of EPA and DHA on ex vivo LDL oxidation were inconsistent, possibly in part due to further changes in LDL fatty acid composition, according to "Influence of three rapeseed oil-rich diets, fortified with alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid on the composition and oxidizability of low-density lipoproteins: results of a controlled study in healthy volunteers" by Egert S, Somoza V, Kannenberg F, Fobker M, Krome K, Erbersdobler HF, Wahrburg U.(3)

d. Etc.

2. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
In the study of the controversy whether children should have a dietary supply of preformed long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA found that dietary intakes in childhood are consistent with future eating patterns supporting adult health, such as prevention of metabolic disorders and CVD, supporting immune function, and reproductive health, according to "Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in children - a workshop report" by Koletzko B, Uauy R, Palou A, Kok F, Hornstra G, Eilander A, Moretti D, Osendarp S, Zock P, Innis S.(4)

3. Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA)
found that Oral treatment with alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) for six weeks in synergy with rehabilitation therapy improved neuropathic symptoms and deficits in patients with radicular neuropathy, according to "The use of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), gamma linolenic acid (GLA) and rehabilitation in the treatment of back pain: effect on health-related quality of life" by Ranieri M, Sciuscio M, Cortese AM, Santamato A, Di Teo L, Ianieri G, Bellomo RG, Stasi M, Megna M.(5)

C. Other health benefits
1. Alzheimer’s Disease
Since fish oil contains high levels of omega 3 fatty acid that is essential in reducing oxidation of cell causing cells in nervous system, leading to Alzheimer's diseases, according to "
Nutritional modifiers of aging brain function: use of uridine and other phosphatide precursors to increase formation of brain synapses" by Wurtman RJ, Cansev M, Sakamoto T, Ulus I.(I)

2.
Cardiovascular diseases
Omega 3 fatty acid plays an vital role in reducing the bad cholesterol (LDL) oxditaion, causing plague buildup on the arterial walls, leading to the risk of blocking blood flow as the blood vessels are narrower due to expansion of plague, according to "
Omega-3 Fatty acids for cardiovascular disease prevention" by Defilippis AP, Blaha MJ, Jacobson TA.(II)

3. Menstrual cramps and pain
Unbalance of Omega 3 and 6 fatty acid is essential to avoid over production of the prostaglandins hormone, causing constriction of abdominal muscle, leading to cramps and pain, according to "
Effect of Clupeonella grimmi (anchovy/kilka) fish oil on dysmenorrhoea" by Moghadamnia AA, Mirhosseini N, Abadi MH, Omranirad A, Omidvar S.(III)

4. Osteoarthritis
Fish oil helps to reduce the impact of enzymes that destroy cartilages causing pains, according to "Regulation of osteoarthritis by omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in a naturally occurring model of disease" by Knott L, Avery NC, Hollander AP, Tarlton JF.(IV)

5. Depression
Study found that increasing the levels of omega-3 fatty acids enhances the transportation of of hormone serotonin between cells, thus reducing the risk of depression, according to "EPA but not DHA appears to be responsible for the efficacy of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in depression: evidence from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials" by Martins JG.(V)

6. Etc.

Side effects
Over consumption of fish oil lead to high levels of EPA and DHA may cause
1. Increased incidence of bleeding
2. Oxidation of omega-3 fatty acids, forming biologically active oxidation products
3. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22194111
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20814766
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16969378
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20187993
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19887043

(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19015135
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19597033
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9450671
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11837983
(e) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19022982

(I) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21091953
(II) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20842560
(III) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20795425
(IV) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21723952
(V) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20439549