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Monday, 11 November 2013

#Superfoods - Shiitake Mushroom

Shiitake mushroom is an edible mushroom, genus Lentinula, beloning to family Marasmiaceae, native to East Asia and widely cultivated for consumption for its health benefits and commercial purpose in many Asian countries.

Nutritional supplements
1. Protein
2. Dietary fiber
3. Vitamin C
4. Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)
5. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
6. Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
7. Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)
8. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
9. Folate
10. Vitamin B12 (Cobalamins)
11. Vitamin C
12. Vitamin D
13. Calcium
14. Copper
15. Iron
16.Magnesium
17. Manganese
18. Phosphorus
19. Potassium
20. Selenium
21. Zinc
22. Etc.

Health benefits
A. Health benefits according to researches
1. Prevents Fat Deposition and Lowers Triglyceride

In the investigation of the effects of Shiitake mushroom on the prevention of alterations of plasma lipid profiles, fat deposition, energy efficiency, and body fat index induced by High-fat diet (HFD) found that the existence of negative correlations between the amount of Shiitake mushroom supplementation and body weight gain, plasma TAG, and total fat masses,
according to "Dietary Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinus edodes) Prevents Fat Deposition and Lowers Triglyceride in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet" by Handayani D, Chen J, Meyer BJ, Huang XF.(a)

2. Anti
gingivitis activity
In the assessment of Gingivitis as a result of inflammation of the gums due to the buildup of a microbial biofilm at the gingival margin found that shiitake mushroom extract lowered the numbers of some pathogenic taxa without affecting the taxa associated with health, unlike chlorhexidine which has a limited effect on all taxa, according to "In vitro assessment of shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) extract for its antigingivitis activity" by Ciric L, Tymon A, Zaura E, Lingström P, Stauder M, Papetti A, Signoretto C, Pratten J, Wilson M, Spratt D.(b)

3.
Anticariogenic effects
In the analyzing the anticariogenic potential of the (sub)fractions obtained from the edible mushroom shiitake (Lentinula edodes) found that the SF4 of shiitake showed strong inhibiting effect on dentin demineralization and induced microbial shifts that could be associated with oral health. The acid producing potential was increased, suggesting uncoupling of the glycolysis of the microbiota by the exposure to shiitake extract and subfractions 4 (SF4). In conclusion, the results suggest that SF4 of shiitake has an anticariogenic potential, according to "The effects of fractions from shiitake mushroom on composition and cariogenicity of dental plaque microcosms in an in vitro caries model" by Zaura E, Buijs MJ, Hoogenkamp MA, Ciric L, Papetti A, Signoretto C, Stauder M, Lingström P, Pratten J, Spratt DA, Wilson M.(c)

4.
Anticaries effect
In the evaluation of the caries-inhibiting effect of the extract from shiitake (Lentinus edodes), found that the firmly adherent plaque in the artificial plaque formation test was strongly inhibited by shiitake extract. The reduction of firmly adherent plaque caused an increase in the incidence of non- and loosely adherent plaque and a decrease in total plaque formation. A significantly lower caries score was observed in specific pathogen-free rats infected with S. mutans JC-2 and fed with a cariogenic diet containing 0.25% shiitake extract as compared with controls fed the cariogenic diet without shiitake extract, according to "Anticaries effect of a component from shiitake (an edible mushroom)" by Shouji N, Takada K, Fukushima K, Hirasawa M.(d)

5.
Arthritis
In the investigation the effects of WBM and shiitake mushrooms (SM) on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) found that Whether mushrooms are beneficial for arthritis management remains to be investigated. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating a possible health benefit of WBM in arthritis treatment, accoridng to "White button and shiitake mushrooms reduce the incidence and severity of collagen-induced arthritis in dilute brown non-agouti mice" by Chandra L, Alexander H, Traoré D, Lucas EA, Clarke SL, Smith BJ, Lightfoot SA, Kuvibidila S.

6. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Vitamin B3

Vitamin B3 or Niacin is essential for lowering high cholesterol levels, according to the study of "Cholesterol efflux potential and antiinflammatory properties of high-density lipoprotein after treatment with niacin or anacetrapib" by Yvan-Charvet L, Kling J, Pagler T, Li H, Hubbard B, Fisher T, Sparrow CP, Taggart AK, Tall AR., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20448206), forming the components of cells' genetic material DNA during excision repair, according to the study of "Niacin deficiency delays DNA excision repair and increases spontaneous and nitrosourea-induced chromosomal instability in rat bone marrow" by Kostecki LM, Thomas M, Linford G, Lizotte M, Toxopeus L, Bartleman AP, Kirkland JB., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17618655) and treating diabetes and high blood sugar levels, according to the study of "Treatment of dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes" by Vijayaraghavan K., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21172030), researcher indicated that a number of lipid-lowering agents, including statins, fibrates, niacin, and bile acid sequestrants, are available to target normalization of the entire lipid profile.

2. Vitamin B5
Vitamin B5 not only plays an important role in speeding wound healing , according to ""Role of pantothenic and ascorbic acid in wound healing processes: in vitro study on fibroblasts" by Lacroix B, Didier E, Grenier JF.,(1), but also enhances the healing of diabetic ulceration, according to "Safety and efficacy of a new honey ointment on diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective pilot study" by Abdelatif M, Yakoot M, Etmaan M.(2)

3. Vitamin B6
Vitamin B6 or Pyridoxine beside is important in enhancing the developing red blood cells by stimulating the production of hemoglobin, it also helps to keep blood sugar levels steady during the process of breaking down stored energy in gestation pregnancy, according to the study of "Improvement of oral glucose tolerance in gestational diabetes by pyridoxine" by Bennink HJ, Schreurs WH., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1131652)

4. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
Riboflavin depletion in adult humans may only impair proliferation and proliferative potential of intestinal cells, according to "Riboflavin depletion impairs cell proliferation in adult human duodenum: identification of potential effectors" by Nakano E, Mushtaq S, Heath PR, Lee ES, Bury JP, Riley SA, Powers HJ, Corfe BM.(3), but also use effective in treating MADD, according to "Central nervous system and muscle involvement in an adolescent patient with riboflavin-responsive multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency" by Ishii K, Komaki H, Ohkuma A, Nishino I, Nonaka I, Sasaki M.(4)

5. Manganese
Manganese beside is a mineral essential for energy production and metabolism of foods, it also helps to improve immune-system functioning that reduces the risk of inflammation, according to the study of "The effects of 3, 4 or 5 amino salicylic acids on manganese-induced neuronal death: ER stress and mitochondrial complexes" by Yoon H, Lee GH, Kim DS, Kim KW, Kim HR, Chae HJ., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21477646 researchers indicated that the salicylate analogues and the antioxidants did not mediate ER stress in this model. The salicylate analogues reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reversed the deficient mitochondrial membrane potential that was induced by Mn. Taken together, the 3, 4, 5 ASA worked in a similar way, regulating the Mn-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and protecting cells.

6. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC)
AHCC is an alpha-glucan rich nutritional supplement produced from the Shiitake mushroom
the second most popular alternative medicine used to treat cancer patients. Study published in 2003 reported improved survival associated with AHCC in primary liver cancer patients after surgical resection of the primary tumor, according to "Alleviating effect of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) for anticancer drug-induced side effects in non-tumor-bearing mice" by Shigama K, Nakaya A, Wakame K, Nishioka H, Fujii H.(I)

2. Immune system
Shiitake mushroom enhances the immune system in fighting against infection and disease. influenza, viruses and irregular cells growth due to it anti-tumor polysaccharide lentinan, according to "Immunoregulatory effects of the antitumor polysaccharide lentinan on Th1/Th2 balance in patients with digestive cancers" by Yoshino S, Tabata T, Hazama S, Iizuka N, Yamamoto K, Hirayama M, Tangoku A, Oka M.(II)

3. Cholesterol
It also enhances the ration levels of blood cholesterol due to its active compound eritadenine, according to "Eritadenine-induced alterations of plasma lipoprotein lipid concentrations and phosphatidylcholine molecular species profile in rats fed cholesterol-free and cholesterol-enriched diets" by Shimada Y, Morita T, Sugiyama K.(III)

4. Free radicals
Shiitake mushroom contains high levels of antioxidants such as L-ergothioneine, that helps to
reduce the risk of oxidative cause of mutation in cell division and alternation, according to"Ergothioneine; antioxidant potential, physiological function and role in disease" by Cheah IK, Halliwell B.(IV)

5. Liver diseases
Extracts of the mycelium of shiitake mushrooms not only protect the liver but also recover from liver fibrosis, according to "Effects and mechanisms of Acremoniumterricola milleretal mycelium on liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats" by Tian XP, Yin YY, Li X.(V)

6. Etc.

Side effects
1. Cooking eliminates the effect of toxin lentinan.
2. Purines
Excessive intake can cause kidney stone. People with untreated kidney and gallbladder disease should consult with their doctor before eating high amount of Shiitake mushroom.

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(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22028957
(b) http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbb/2011/507908/
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21941428
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10601791
(e) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21106932

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3243694
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18376651

(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20848206
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19783111

(I) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19827270
(II) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11205205
(III) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12834276
(IV) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22001064
(V) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21598420