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Monday, 11 November 2013

Superfoods - Flaxseed oil



Flaxseed oil is extracted from the seeds of the flax plant (Linum usitatissimum) contained both omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Flaxseed oil generally contains 50% of the omega-3 fatty acid - alpha-linolenic acid and 25 % of the omega-6 fatty acid linolenic acid, 15 % of mainly monounsaturated oleic acid and trace amounts of palmitoleic acid and eicosenoic acid.

Nutritional SupplementsNutritional Supplement1. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
Nutritional Supplements
1. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
2. Palmitic acid
3. Stearic acid
4. Arachidic acid
5. Palmitoleic acid
6. Oleic acid
7. Eicosenoic acid
8. Linoleic acid
9. Etc.

Health benefits
A. Health benefits according to researches
1. Brain development
In the observation of the Influence of omega-3 fatty acids from the flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) and its effect on brain development found that significant increase in brain weight (39%) and relative brain weight (37%) was verified in pups from mothers fed with flaxseed diet. The omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids from the flaxseed were found in abundance in the diet made with this oleaginous and also significant increase in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (38%), as well as in total of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (62%), according to "Influence of omega-3 fatty acids from the flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) on the brain development of newborn rats" by Lenzi Almeida KC, Teles Boaventura G, Guzmán Silva MA.(a)

2. Central nervous system
IN analyzing the intake of flaxseed-based diet (Linum usitatissimum) and its effect on central nervous system found that flaxseed during perinatal and postweaning periods improves spatial memory to the detriment of growth. These findings indicate that there must be caution in encouraging the maternal intake of flaxseed during pregnancy and lactation, according to "Maternal intake of flaxseed-based diet (Linum usitatissimum) on hippocampus fatty acid profile: implications for growth, locomotor activity and spatial memory" by Fernandes FS, de Souza AS, do Carmo MG, Boaventura GT.(b)

3. Colon Cancer
In the evaluation of intake of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and theirsprofound effect on colon tumor development found that Colon and serum samples of the corn oil group showed an increase in the omega-6 fatty acid levels, whereas the flaxseed oil group exhibited an increase in the omega-3 fatty acid levels. The results indicate that dietary flaxseed oil, containing high levels of omega-3 fatty acids, is effective in preventing colon tumor development when compared with dietary corn oil containing omega-6 fatty acids in rats, according to "Chemopreventive effects of dietary flaxseed oil on colon tumor development" by Dwivedi C, Natarajan K, Matthees DP.(c)

4. Cholesterol
In the comparison of the effects of different fats, that is pork lard, refined soybean oil, and unrefined, cold pressed flaxseed oil, on the antioxidant status found that soybean oil or flaxseed oil to the diet (16%) decreased significantly triglyceride and total cholesterol blood levels, as well as reduced atherogenic index of plasma. The concentration of HDL cholesterol was retained on a higher blood level in rats fed flaxseed oil enriched diet, when compared with the soybean oil group, according to "[Usefulness of flaxseed oil in the limitation of diet induced metabolic disturbances].[Article in Polish]", by Jurgoński A, Juśkiewicz J, Zduńczyk P.(d)

5. Etc.

B. Health Benefits according to concentration
1. Omega-3 fatty acids
a. Anti inflammation
In the investigation of Omega 3 fatty acids and theirs effect on inflammation,a physiological response to tissue trauma or infection found that dietary n-3-PUFA, EPA, to inhibit this process not only revealed an unsuspected level of regulation in the migration of inflammatory leukocytes, it also contributes to our understanding of the interactions of this bioactive lipid with the inflammatory system. Moreover, it indicates the potential for novel therapeutics that target the inflammatory system with greater affinity and/or specificity than supplementing the diet with n-3-PUFAs, according to "Omega-3 Fatty acids and inflammation: novel interactions reveal a new step in neutrophil recruitment" by Tull SP, Yates CM, Maskrey BH, O'Donnell VB, Madden J, Grimble RF, Calder PC, Nash GB, Rainger GE.(1)

b. Recurrent symptomatic atrial fibrillation
In assessment of the safety and efficacy of prescription omega-3 fatty acids (prescription omega-3) for the prevention of recurrent symptomatic Atrial fibrillation (AF), concluded that yhis is the first randomized blinded trial to assess the antiarrhythmic effects of 4 g/d P-OM3 in paroxysmal AF, according to "Efficacy and safety of prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters for the prevention of recurrent symptomatic atrial fibrillation: a prospective study" by Pratt CM, Reiffel JA, Ellenbogen KA, Naccarelli GV, Kowey PR.(2)

3. Cardiovascular diseases
In the classification of Omega 3 fatty acids and theirs effect on cardiovascular diseases
found that incorporation of long-chain n-3 fatty acids into plaques collected at carotid endarterectomy resulted in fewer macrophages in the plaque and a morphology indicative of increased stability. These findings are supported from observations in an animal model and suggest that the primary effect of long-chain n-3 fatty acids might be on macrophages within the plaque, according to "Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids, cardiovascular disease and stability of atherosclerotic plaques" by Calder PC, Yaqoob P.(3)

4. Etc.

2. Omega-6 fatty acids
a. Chronic diseases
In the evaluation of genetic variants in the metabolism of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids and theirs effect on chronic diseases found that the effects of genetic variants in FADS1 and FADS2, 5-LO and cyclooxygenase-2 should be taken into consideration both in the determination of nutritional requirements and chronic disease risk. Furthermore, genome-wide association studies need to include environmental exposures and include diet in the interaction between genetic variation and disease association, according to "Genetic variants in the metabolism of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids: their role in the determination of nutritional requirements and chronic disease risk" by Simopoulos AP.(4)

b. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
In the identification of the use of alternative forms of treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (adhd), such as the food supplements omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids found that there is a theoretical rationale for the effectiveness of fatty acids in the treatment of adhd; research is ongoing. At the moment, however, treatment of adhd with omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids is not recommended because it does not qualify as being evidence-based, according to "[Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD].[Article in Dutch]" by Aben A, Danckaerts M.(5)

3. Omega-9 fatty acids
a. Skin penetration enhancing action
In the determination of The skin penetrative action of high purity cis-omega-12-octadecenoic acid (petroselinic acid, HP-PSA) on rat skin was compared with that of high purity cis-omega-9-octadecenoic acid (oleic acid, HP-OA) found that HP-PSA, which has a double bond at an even numbered position (omega-12), more rapidly affects the perturbation of the structures of both the stratum corneum and the dermis than HP-OA, which has the double bond at an odd numbered position (omega-9). Differences in the physicochemical properties of HP-PSA and HP-OA which originate from differences in the double bond position most likely determine the efficacy of these compounds as skin penetration enhancers, according to "Skin penetration enhancing action of cis-unsaturated fatty acids with omega-9, and omega-12-chain lengths" by Takeuchi Y, Yamaoka Y, Fukushima S, Miyawaki K, Taguchi K, Yasukawa H, Kishimoto S, Suzuki M.(6)

b. Vascular smooth muscle tone
In the investigation of omega-3, omega-6 and omega-9 fatty acids and theirs effect on vascular smooth muscle tone found that Docosahexaenoic acid (1-255 microM) and eicosapentaenoic acid (31-255 microM) inhibited phenylephrine-induced contractions, (8-63%) and (20-65%), respectively, which were not altered by indomethacin, NDGA, or by removal of the endothelium. Linoleic acid (18:2n6) and arachidonic acid (20:4n6) also induced significant relaxation. Therefore, fatty acid-induced relaxation of the rat aorta is specific to polyunsaturated fatty acids, 20:5n3, 22:6n3, 18:2n6 and 20:4n6, according to "Effects of omega-3, omega-6 and omega-9 fatty acids on vascular smooth muscle tone" by Engler MB.(7)

c. Etc.

C. Other health Benefits
1. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
Alpha-linolenic acid, an organic compound found in many common vegetable oils cannot be produced within the body and must be acquired through diet, is a member of the group of essential fatty acids. It helps to reduces the risk of death, heart attack, dangerous abnormal heart rhythms, etc. in people with known cardiovascular disease by prevent the risk of the buildup of plaques on the arterial walls., according to "Does alpha-linolenic acid intake reduce the risk of coronary heart disease? A review of the evidence" by Mozaffarian D.(I)
In free radicals, Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) is an organosulfur compound derived fromoctanoic acid. It has been used as over-the-counter nutritional supplements to treat a number of diseases and conditions. Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) not only is importance in preventing the symptoms of vitamin C and vitamin E deficiency, but also generates dihydrolipoic acid by reducing morbidity and mortality by preventing organ dysfunction induced by free radicals in the pancreas, according to "Beneficial effects of alpha lipoic acid on cerulein-induced experimental acute pancreatitis in rats" by Bulut NE, Özkan E, Ekinci O, Dulundu E, Topaloğlu Ü, Şehirli AÖ, Ercan F, Şener G.(II)

2. Palmitic acid and Arachidic acid
Palmitic acid and Arachidic acid are 2 of the most common saturated fatty acids found in animals and plants. Although it is said that dietary intake of palmitic acid and arachidic acid increase risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, it may be true if they are taken in a large amount and for a prolong period of time. In fact, saturated fatty acid is needed for cell membrane and for cells to function properly as well as playing an important role in whole-body energy homeostasis by mediating signaling necessary for the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism in fat cells., according to "Fat cell-specific ablation of rictor in mice impairs insulin-regulated fat cell and whole-body glucose and lipid metabolism" by Kumar A, Lawrence JC Jr, Jung DY, Ko HJ, Keller SR, Kim JK, Magnuson MA, Harris TE.(III)

3. Stearic acid
Stearic acid has neutral effects on lipids and lipoproteins unlike the other long-chain saturated fatty acids. In epidemiologic and clinical studies stearic acid was associated with lowered LDL cholesterol in comparison with other saturated fatty acids, according to "Cardiovascular disease risk of dietary stearic acid compared with trans, other saturated, and unsaturated fatty acids: a systematic review" by Hunter JE, Zhang J, Kris-Etherton PM.(IV)

4. Oleic acid
Oleic acid is a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid found in various animal and vegetable fats. It not only lowers the levels of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) or bad cholesterol and increases the levels of High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) or good cholesterol, it also strengthens the cell membrane and acts as reducing the risk of hypertension, according to "Nitro-oleic acid inhibits angiotensin II-induced hypertension" by Zhang J, Villacorta L, Chang L, Fan Z, Hamblin M, Zhu T, Chen CS, Cole MP, Schopfer FJ, Deng CX, Garcia-Barrio MT, Feng YH, Freeman BA, Chen YE.(V)

5. Linoleic acid
Linoleic acid (LA) is an unsaturated n-6 fatty acid. Since human body can not produce linoleic, it must be taken from your diet. In Animal studies, including CLA in your diet could reduce the risk of colon cancers. Testing on mice with type 2 diabetes have shown CLA to improve insulin action and reduce circulating glucose, according to "Dietary linoleic acid and glucose enhances azoxymethane-induced colon cancer and metastases via the expression of high-mobility group box 1" by Ohmori H, Luo Y, Fujii K, Sasahira T, Shimomoto T, Denda A, Kuniyasu H.(VI)

6. Etc.

Side effects
1. Flaxseed may slow down the rate your body absorbs oral medications or other nutrients if taken at the same time.
2. Potential for side effects and interactions with medications
3. Etc.

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Sources
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22072343
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21439792
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15749630
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21980870

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19707265
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19619690
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20196967
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20558833
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20146180
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9635505


(I) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15945135
(II) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22090321
(III) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20332342
(IV) http://www.ajcn.org/content/91/1/46.abstract
(V) http://circres.ahajournals.org/content/107/4/540.abstract
(VI) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20616616