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Monday, 11 November 2013

Superfoods - Dulse (Palmaria)


Dulse is a red seaweed of genus Palmaria, belong to Family Palmariaceae that grows attached to rocks by a "holdfast" in the North Atlantic and Northwest Pacific. It is commonly used in Ireland and Atlantic Canada both as food and medicinally and is now shipped around the globe. Dulse is found in many health food stores or fish markets or can be ordered directly from local distributors.

Nutrients
1. Protein
2. Carbohydrate
3. Fat
4. Sodium
5. Potassium
6. Calcium
7. Iodine
8. Iron
9. Magnesium
10. Copper
11. Zinc
12. Vitamin A
13. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
14. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
15. Vitamin B3(Niacin)
16. Vitamin B6 (Pyrodoxine)
17. Vitamin B12
18. Vitamin C
19. Vitamin E
20. Etc.

Health benefits
A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Antiproliferative activities
In the investigation of red alga, dulse (Palmaria palmata) and three kelp (Laminaria setchellii, Macrocystis integrifolia, Nereocystis leutkeana) extract and theirs antiproliferative effect found that the antiproliferative efficacy of these algal extracts were positively correlated with the total polyphenol contents (p<0.05), suggesting a causal link related to extract content of kelp phlorotannins and dulse polyphenols including mycosporine-like amino acids and phenolic acids, according to "Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of extracts from a variety of edible seaweeds" by Yuan YV, Walsh NA.(a)

2. Health benefits
In the assessment of nutritional and physiological properties of edible seaweeds is presented. Seaweeds are traditionally consumed in Asia as sea vegetables found that Seaweeds showed important functional activities, such as antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticoagulant effect, antitumor activity, and an important role in the modification of lipid metabolism in human body. In conclusion, seaweeds have a high nutritional value, therefore an increase in their consumption, would elevate the foods offer to population, according to "[Nutritional evaluation and physiological effects of edible seaweeds].[Article in Spanish]" by Jiménez-Escrig A, Goñi Cambrodón I.(b)

3. Antioxidant
In assessment of polyphenol content of the dulse extract of two grades of dulse harvested from Canadian Maritime locations differing in UV radiation exposure (i.e. west versus east coasts of Grand Manan Island, New Brunswick) and their antiodant effects found that The 1-butanol soluble extract from Grade 1 dulse (reduced UV-exposure) exhibited lower reducing activity versus Grade 2 dulse (greater UV exposure) reflecting a lower requirement for endogenous antioxidant protection. Grade 1 and 2 dulse extracts both inhibited (p0.03) AAPH-induced lipid peroxidation, but had no effect on AMVN-induced lipid peroxidation, demonstrating the aqueous nature of the antioxidants involved, according to "Extracts from dulse (Palmaria palmata) are effective antioxidants and inhibitors of cell proliferation in vitro" by Yuan YV, Carrington MF, Walsh NA.(c)

4. Biosorption of heavy metals
In the analyzing the biosorption of heavy metals from aqueous solutions of red algae (Palmaria palmata) found that The highest maximum sorption capacity q(max), derived from the Langmuir model was 15.17 mg g(-1) for lead and 6.65 mg g(-1) for copper (dry weight metal/dry weight biosorbent) at a pH of 5.5-6. The affinity of metals for P. palmata was found to decrease in the order: Pb2+ > Cd2+ > Cu2+ > Ni2+. The factors influencing copper and lead uptake were found to be contact time, pH, initial concentration and temperature. Biosorption of copper and lead was a rapid process, with 70% and 100% of the respective uptakes occurring within the first 10 minutes, according to "Biosorption of heavy metals by red algae (Palmaria palmata)" by Prasher SO, Beaugeard M, Hawari J, Bera P, Patel RM, Kim SH.(d)

B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Vitamin B6a. Memory Improvements
In the investigation of Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) and Memory Improvements found that The multivitamin improved speed of response on a measure of spatial working memory, according to ""Memory improvements in elderly women following 16 weeks treatment with a combined multivitamin, mineral and herbal supplement : A randomized controlled trial" by Macpherson H, Ellis KA, Sali A, Pipingas A.(1)

b. Anti cancer effects
In the observation of Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) and its anti cancer effects found that vitamin B6 is involved in the methyl donor cycle ant thus, some of the antitumor properties of vitamin B6 may involve an indirect effect on the level of DNA or histone methylation. according to ""Vitamin B6 and cancer: from clinical data to molecularly mechanisms" by Sujol G, Docquier A, Boulahtouf A, Castet-Nicolas A, Cavaillès V.(2)

2. Vitamin B12In the evaluation of vitamin B12 in Turnip greens found that vitamin Bi2 was present in the
leaves of a higher plant in amounts. there is no evidence supporting the synthesis of vitamin Bi2 by a higher plant. Was it produced by soil microorganisms and subsequently absorbed via the plant roots? There is ample proof of such synthetic activity by certain microorganisms and of vitamin B12 activity in soil , but no evidence that the vitamin B]2molecule is absorbed by the plant from the soil. Could it have been produced by bacteria living epiphytically
on the turnip leaf? Ericson and Lewis ('54) postulated such a relationship in their studies of vitamin Bt2 compounds found in certain algae, according to "STUDIES OF VITAMIN B12IN TUENIP GREENS" by LOUISE F. GEAY ANDLOUISE J. DANIEL(3)

3. IronBeside as a mineral in carrying life-giving oxygen to human blood cells and maintaining robust health as an essential protein component for metabolism, it also helps in synthesis of a number of essential neurotransmitters like dopamine, nor-epinephrine, along with serotonin. acccording to the study of "Brain Iron Dysregulation and the Risk of Ageing White Matter Lesions" by Gebril OH, Simpson JE, Kirby J, Brayne C, Ince PG., posted in PubMed, researchers found that The mRNA expression using QPCR suggests a pattern that favours decreased intracellular iron influx, increased ferrous oxidation and increased iron export from the cells. Iron metabolism seems to be changed in brains with WML, increased elemental iron in these brains and in turn increased production of free oxidative radicals could represent a potentiating factor for the development of ageing WML. .

4. Potassium

Potassium beside is important in maintaining the regular contraction and relaxation of the muscle, that helps to reducing the risk of hypokalemia, it also helps the lymphatic system in regulating the levels of fluid in the body, thus lessening the risk of lymphedema, swelling caused by the accumulation of lymph fluid. In a study of "Narrative review: evolving concepts in potassium homeostasis and hypokalemia" by Greenlee M, Wingo CS, McDonough AA, Youn JH, Kone BC., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19414841), researchers found that recent experimental insights into the participation of feedback and feedforward control mechanisms in potassium homeostasis. New data make clear that feedforward homeostatic responses activate when decreased potassium intake is sensed, even when plasma potassium concentration is still within the normal range and before frank hypokalemia ensues, in addition to the classic feedback activation of renal potassium conservation when plasma potassium concentration decreases.

5. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Weigh loss
As a rich source of fiber, dulse beside enhances the process of digestion, it also helps to make the stomach feeling fullness, thus reducing the risk of insulin cause of food craving, leading to weight loss, According to the study of Free-living, overweight and obese adults (N=204, body mass index 25 to 45) with baseline LDL cholesterol levels 130 to 200 mg/dL (3.4 to 5.2 mmol/L) were randomized; 144 were included in the main analysis of participants who completed the trial without significant protocol violations, conducted by Provident Clinical Research, Glen Ellyn, posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20102847.

2. Thyroid gland
Oidine is essential for the functioning of thyroid gland in secreting thyroid hormone into blood stream by converting to iodide through many complicated mechanism. Deficiency of iodine causes developmental delays, hypothyroidism, symptoms of which are extreme fatigue, mental slowing, depression, weight gain, etc., according to the study of "Hypothyroidism and thyroid substitution: historical aspects" by Lindholm J, Laurberg P., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21760981), researchers found that less than 50 years later, effective treatment was introduced. Another 50 years later, autoimmune thyroiditis was ascertained as the most frequent cause of hypothyroidism (in areas with no iodine deficiency). This paper gives a short survey of the history of hypothyroidism and its treatment.

3. Chlorophyll
Chlorophyll, a green pigment found in almost all plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, beside it is best known for its cleansing body and healing to vital organs properties. It also reduces the binding of carcinogens to DNA in the liver and other organs, thus reducing the risk of cancer according to the study of "Natural compounds in the human diet and their ability to bind mutagens prevents DNA-mutagen intercalation" by Osowski A, Pietrzak M, Wieczorek Z, Wieczorek J., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20706936), researchers indicated that in order to bind 50% of the mutagen in a complex, less than twice the concentration of chlorophyllin was needed......

4. Lymphatic function
Since it contains a measurable amount of potassium, it helps to balance the ratio of sodium, thus enhancing the lymphatic functioning in regulating the fluid in the body, resulting in lessening the risk of water retention, according to the article of "Sodium and Potassium Balance" post in Rapunzel's Delight .com

5. Vision health
Eating a proper amount of vitamin A to the diet helps to reduce the risk of irreversibly oxidized form of retinol by converting to the retinal (retinaldehyde) form, which is essential for vision health, according to the study of "The intake of carotenoids in an older Australian population: The Blue Mountains Eye Study" by Manzi F, Flood V, Webb K, Mitchell P., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12020387)

6. Etc.

Side effect
1. pollution with heavy metal elements.
2. Etc.

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Sources
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16554116
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10488389
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15833383
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15551823

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22006207
2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22001823
(3) http://jn.nutrition.org/content/67/4/623.full.pdf