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Monday, 11 November 2013

SuperFoods - Coriander


Coriander is an annual herb, genus Coriandrum in the family Apiaceae, native to southern Europe and North Africa to southwestern Asia. All parts of the plant are edible, but the fresh leaves and the dried seeds are the parts most commonly used in cooking.

Nutritional Supplements
1. Carbohydrates
2. Dietary fiber
3. Fat
4. Protein
5. Vitamin A
6. Vitamin C
7. Etc.

Health Benefits
A. Healthy Benefits according to researches
1. Antimicrobial effects
In the investigation of twelve essential oils in vitro for theirs antimicrobial activities against several strains of Campylobacter jejuni found that indicates the potential of coriander oil to serve as a natural antimicrobial compound against C. jejuni in food, according to "Potential of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) oil as a natural antimicrobial compound in controlling Campylobacter jejuni in raw meat" by Rattanachaikunsopon P, Phumkhachorn P.(a)

2. Anti-anxiety activity
In the evaluation of anti-anxiety activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Coriandrum sativum (Linn.) found that extract of C. sativum at 100 and 200 mg/kg dose produced anti-anxiety effects almost similar to diazepam, and at 50 mg/kg dose did not produce anti-anxiety activity on any of the paradigm used, according to "Anti-anxiety activity of Coriandrum sativum assessed using different experimental anxiety models" by Mahendra P, Bisht S.(b)

3. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect
In the investigation of essential oils of Coriandrum sativum L. and Carum carvi L. fruits and their antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) damage found that coriander essential oil exhibited prooxidant activity, according to "Antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and caraway (Carum carvi L.) (Apiaceae)" by Samojlik I, Lakić N, Mimica-Dukić N, Daković-Svajcer K, Bozin B.(c)

4. Sleep-prolonging effect
In the analyzing the hydro-alcoholic extract (HAE) and its three fractions namely water (WF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and N-butanol (NBF) from C. sativum and theirs effect in sleep disorder found that C. sativum exert sleep-prolonging action without major neurotoxic effect, according to "Sleep-prolonging effect of Coriandrum sativum hydro-alcoholic extract in mice" by Rakhshandeh H, Sadeghnia HR, Ghorbani A.(d)

5. Cognitive effects
In the observation of the effects of fresh Coriandrum sativum leaves (CSL) and its effect on cognitive functions, total serum cholesterol levels and brain cholinesterase activity found that
CSL may be a useful remedy in the management of Alzheimer's disease on account of its multifarious effects such as, memory-improving property, cholesterol-lowering property and anticholinesterase activity, according to "Reversal of memory deficits by Coriandrum sativum leaves in mice" by Mani V, Parle M, Ramasamy K, Abdul Majeed AB.(e)

6. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Dietary fiber
Daily intake of right amount of fibers can prvent and treata. Diabetes, as Increased consumption of vegetables, whole grains, and soluble and insoluble fiber is associated with improved glucose metabolism in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis were more evident in participants following a plant-based diet compared with other commonly used diets, according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F.(1)

2. Vitamin A
Vitamin A is not only important in preventing types I diabetes, according to "A close relationship between type 1 diabetes and vitamin A-deficiency and matrix metalloproteinase and hyaluronidase activities in skin tissues" by Takahashi N, Takasu S.(1) but also may be associated with compromised bone health, according to "Vitamins and bone health: beyond calcium and vitamin D" by Ahmadieh H, Arabi A.(2)

3. Vitamin C
a. Asthma
Vitamin C is one of the key antioxidant vitamins which is abundant in the extracellular fluid lining the lung and low vitamin C intake has been associated with pulmonary dysfunction, such as asthma, according to the study of "Vitamin C supplementation for asthma" by Kaur B, Rowe BH, Arnold E.(3)
b. DNA Damage
Ascorbic acid (AA), known as vitamin C, has important antioxidant vitamin has exerted the activity in preventing (imazalil)IMA-induced cause of DNA damage, according to the stuyd of "The protective role of ascorbic acid on imazalil-induced genetic damage assessed by the cytogenetic tests' by Türkez H, Aydin E.(4)

4. Calcium
In the investigation of micronutrients, calcium (Ca) and inorganic (i) phosphate (P) ,the two main constituents of hydroxyapatite and theirs effect on bone health found that they are endowed with a transport system that accumulates Pi inside the matrix vesicles, followed by the influx of Ca ions. This process leads to the formation of hydroxyapatite crystal and its subsequent association with the organic matrix collagen fibrils. In addition to this structural role, both Ca and Pi positively influence the activity of bone-forming and bone-resorbing cells. Pi plays a role in the maturation of osteocytes, the most abundant cells in bone. Osteocytes are implicated in bone mineralization and systemic Pi homeostasis, according to "Calcium and phosphate: a duet of ions playing for bone health" by Bonjour JP.(5)

5. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Antioxidant
Like most plants with spice taste, coriander contains high levels of antioxidant that helps to protect our body's cells from oxidation damage, thus reducing the DNA alternation due to free radicals. A study found both the leaves and seed to contain antioxidants, but the leaves were found to have a stronger effect, accoridng to "Antioxidant activity in extracts from coriander" by Helle Wangensteen, Anne Berit Samuelsen, Karl Egil Malterud(I)

2. Anti bacteria
Essential oil extracted from corriander found to have antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, according to "Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil: its antibacterial activity and mode of action evaluated by flow cytometry" by Silva F, Ferreira S, Queiroz JA, Domingues FC.(II)

3. Anxiolytic
Researcher found in experiments in mice that coriander may be used for the treatment of anxiety and its related psychological and physical symptoms, according to "Coriandrum sativum: evaluation of its anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus-maze" by Masoumeh Emamghoreishi, Mohammad Khasaki, Maryam Fath Aazam(III)

4. Diabetes
In the evaluation of the diet (62·5 g/kg) and drinking water (2·5 g/l, prepared by 15 min decoction) reduced hyperglycaemia of streptozotocin-diabetic mice found that Coriander extract had both insulin-releasing and insulin-like activity, according to "Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil: its antibacterial activity and mode of action evaluated by flow cytometry" by Silva F, Ferreira S, Queiroz JA, Domingues FC.(IV)

5. Hypolipidemic effect
In a study on rats researcher found that coriander seeds were found to have a significant hypolipidemic effect by lowering of levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides, and increasing levels of high-density lipoprotein due to increasing synthesis of bile by the liver and the breakdown of cholesterol into other compounds, according to "Hypolipidemic effect of coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum): mechanism of action" by Chithra V, Leelamma S.(V)

6. Etc.

Side effects
Allergic effect for some people

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Sources
(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20057155
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22022003
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20608729(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21988208
(e) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20848667

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22009132
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21967159
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19160185
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21986888
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22081690

(I) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308814604001219
(II) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21862758
(III) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874104003083
(IV) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21862758
(V) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9527351