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Saturday, 30 November 2013

Shingles Treatments In the Herbal medicine perspective

Shingles also known as herpes zoster or zona is defined as a viral disease with condition of a painful, blistering skin rash on one side of the body of  that can continue to be painful even after the rash have long disappeared(1), as a result of varicella-zoster viral causes of a nerve and skin inflammation.
B. In herbal medicine perspective
The aims of herbal treatment is to enhace the self defense of the immune system
B.1.  Alfalfa is a flowering plant in the genus Medicago, belonging to the family Fabaceae, It has been cultivated all over the world as hay for cattle feeding. The leaves, sprouts, and seeds to make medicine has been used in traditional medicine over 15010 years to treat high cholesterol, asthma, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, enhance digestive system, bleeding disorder, kidney and urinary tract infection, etc. North Americal aboriginal has used Alfalfa seed as food, such as making bread and mush.
1. Antioxidant
In a study of measurements of pH, water holding capacity, color, oxymyoglobin content, TBARS and oxidation-reduction potential in evaluating the effects of a dietary protein-xanthophylls (PX) concentrate of alfalfa to turkey diets conducted by University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Skromna 8, 20-704 Lublin, Poland.(a), researchers found that TBARS and oxidation-reduction potential values suggested that the inclusion of the concentrate to turkey diets acts as an antioxidant in the raw meat.

2. Disease of autoimmune
In a study of five groups of 12-week-old female mice were per oral treated with vehicle (control), lyophilized AS (550 mg wt/kg BW), ASEA (ASEA, 25 mg/kg BW), coumestrol (CUM, 0.075 mg/kg BW) and tamoxifen (TAM, 0.375 mg/kg BW) as the positive control, conducted by Institute of Microbiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (b), researchers found that alhalfa decreased the disease severity, increased survival and life span of the autoimmune-prone MRL-lpr/lpr mice, suggesting a potential of ASEA in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

3. Anti-inflammatory activity
In a study of anti-inflammatory effects may be used for inflammatory disorders by examining alfalfa sprout ethyl acetate extract (ASEA) in ,ice coducted by College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.(c), researchers found that significantly higher survival rates than the control group and suggests that ASEA supplementation can suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and alleviate acute inflammatory hazards.

B.2. Black Cohosh is a herbaceous perennial plant, genus Actaea, belonging to the family Ranunculaceae, native to eastern North America. The herb has been used in traditional medicine as analgesic, sedative, diuretic, emmenagogue anti-inflammatory agent and to treat rheumatism, symptoms of menopause, uterine cramps and muscle pain, etc.. Native Americans have used the root of the herb to treat snake bite.
a. Antioxidants
Polyphenols in Black cohosh may be considered as an antioxidant which help to fight against the forming of free radicals cause of DNA damage and guarding our body against foreign invasion such as bacteria and virus, according to the study of "Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa L.) protects against menadione-induced DNA damage through scavenging of reactive oxygen species: bioassay-directed isolation and characterization of active principles" by Burdette JE, Chen SN, Lu ZZ, Xu H, White BE, Fabricant DS, Liu J, Fong HH, Farnsworth NR, Constantinou AI, Van Breemen RB, Pezzuto JM, Bolton JL., posted in PubMed(41)

b.2. Anti-inflammation
Cimicifuga racemosa (Actaea racemosa, black cohosh)have exerted inflammatory activity by inhibiting nitric oxide production by reducing iNOS expression without affecting activity of the enzyme, according to the study of "Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthesis by Cimicifuga racemosa (Actaea racemosa, black cohosh) extracts in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages" by Schmid D, Gruber M, Woehs F, Prinz S, Etzlstorfer B, Prucker C, Fuzzati N, Kopp B, Moeslinger T., posted in PubMed(42)

B.3. Chamomile is also known as camomile, common name of many species daisy-like plants in the family Asteraceae. The herb has been used in traditional medicine as antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory constituents and to treat menstrual cramps and sleep disorders, reduce cramping and spastic pain in the bowels, relieve excessive gas and bloating in the intestine, etc.
a. Anxiety
Matricaria recutita (chamomile) extract therapy has exerted the modest anxiolytic activity in patients with mild to moderate generalized anxiety disorder, according to the study of "A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral Matricaria recutita (chamomile) extract therapy for generalized anxiety disorder" by Amsterdam JD, Li Y, Soeller I, Rockwell K, Mao JJ, Shults J.(43)

b. Anti-inflammatory effects
Chamomile has demonstrated the inhibition of NO production and iNOS gene expression by inhibiting RelA/p65 activation and supports the utilization of chamomile as an effective anti-inflammatory agent, according to the study of "Chamomile: an anti-inflammatory agent inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by blocking RelA/p65 activity' by Bhaskaran N, Shukla S, Srivastava JK, Gupta S.(44)

c. Immunomodulatory effect
Extracts of Silene (Silene nocturna), Black seed (Nigella sativa) and Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) have exerted significantly (P < 0.01) restored their resistance against lethal infection with the predominately granulocyte-dependant Candida albicans, according to the study of "Evaluation of immunomodulatory effect of three herbal plants growing in Egypt" by Ghonime M, Eldomany R, Abdelaziz A, Soliman H.(45)

B.4. Grapefruit seed extract (GSE) is a liquid extracted from the seeds, pulp, and white membranes of grapefruit. The herb has been used in traditional medicine as an anti bacterial, viral, fungal, parasites and to enhance immune system, protect against colds and flu and malignant disease.
a. Antimicrobial activity
In the determination of antibacterial and antifungal activity of ethanolic extract of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., Rutaceae) seed and pulp found that ethanolic extract exibited the strongest antimicrobial effect against Salmonella enteritidis (MIC 2.06%, m/V). Other tested bacteria and yeasts were sensitive to extract concentrations ranging from 4.13% to 16.50% (m/V), according to "Antimicrobial activity of grapefruit seed and pulp ethanolic extract" by Cvetnić Z, Vladimir-Knezević S.(46)

b. Antioxidant activity
In analyzing the antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) seeds glyceric extract dissolved in ethanol and in aqueous media found that grapefruit seeds glyceric extract utilized as aqueous solutions demonstrated antioxidant properties better than those displayed by alcoholic solutions. according to "Antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi seeds glyceric extract" by Giamperi L, Fraternale D, Bucchini A, Ricci D.(47)

B.5.  Shiitake mushroom is an edible mushroom, genus Lentinula, belonging to family Marasmiaceae, native to East Asia and widely cultivated for consumption for its health benefits and commercial purpose in many Asian countries. The herb has been used in traditional medicine as blood tonic agent and to strengthen immune system, treat colds, measles, bronchial inflammations, etc.
a. Immune system
Shiitake mushroom enhances the immune system in fighting against infection and disease. influenza, viruses and irregular cells growth due to it anti-tumor polysaccharide lentinan, according to "Immunoregulatory effects of the antitumor polysaccharide lentinan on Th1/Th2 balance in patients with digestive cancers" by Yoshino S, Tabata T, Hazama S, Iizuka N, Yamamoto K, Hirayama M, Tangoku A, Oka M.(48)

b. Cholesterol
It also enhances the ration levels of blood cholesterol due to its active compound eritadenine, according to "Eritadenine-induced alterations of plasma lipoprotein lipid concentrations and phosphatidylcholine molecular species profile in rats fed cholesterol-free and cholesterol-enriched diets" by Shimada Y, Morita T, Sugiyama K.(49)

c. Free radicals
Shiitake mushroom contains high levels of antioxidants such as L-ergothioneine, that helps to
reduce the risk of oxidative cause of mutation in cell division and alternation, according to"Ergothioneine; antioxidant potential, physiological function and role in disease" by Cheah IK, Halliwell B.(50)

d. Liver diseases
Extracts of the mycelium of shiitake mushrooms not only protect the liver but also recover from liver fibrosis, according to "Effects and mechanisms of Acremoniumterricola milleretal mycelium on liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats" by Tian XP, Yin YY, Li X.(51)

B.6. Ginseng Asia is also known as Panax ginseng. Since it has been grown in the cold places in the Asian, Asian ginseng is considered as yang promoting, according to traditional Chinese medicine.
The herb has been used in traditional and Chinese medicine to promote yang and to improve cardiac function, short of breath, blood pressure. Panax ginseng can generates fluids and reduce thirst, to treat anxiety, insomnia, dizziness/headache, forgetfulness, impotence, diabetes, bleeding in the vagina not during period, etc.
a. Antioxidant activity
In the evaluation of the extraction conditions of polysaccharides from the rhizomes of Panax japonicus C.A. Meyer and its antioxidant effect found that antioxidant activity exhibited Panax japonicus polysaccharides (PJP) had a good potential for antioxidant, according to "Optimization of polysaccharides from Panax japonicus C.A. Meyer by RSM and its anti-oxidant activity" by Wang R, Chen P, Jia F, Tang J, Ma F.(52)

b.  Immunological activities
In the study of Water-soluble ginseng oligosaccharides (designated as WGOS) with a degree of polymerization ranging from 2 to 10 were obtained from warm-water extract of Panax ginseng roots, found that WGOS were potent B and T-cell stimulators and WGOS-1 has the highest immunostimulating effect on lymphocyte proliferation among those purified fractions. It is hoped that the WGOS will be developed into functional food or medicine, according to "Structural characterization and immunological activities of the water-soluble oligosaccharides isolated from the Panax ginseng roots" by Wan D, Jiao L, Yang H, Liu S.(53)

B.7. For more infoprmation of other herbs and singles, please visit(54)  
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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16936604
(41) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16562825 
(42) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19703353 
(43) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19593179 
(44) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21042790 
(45) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20507215 
(46) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15610620 
(47) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15030930 
(48) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11205205
(49) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12834276
(50) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22001064
(51) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21598420 
(52) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22214823 
(53) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22183124 
(54) http://theworldmostpopularherbs.blogspot.ca/2011/10/world-most-popular-herbs-health.html