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Saturday, 30 November 2013

Shingles - The Phytochemicals

I. Shingles also known as herpes zoster or zona is defined as a viral disease with condition of a painful, blistering skin rash on one side of the body of  that can continue to be painful even after the rash have long disappeared(1), as a result of varicella-zoster viral causes of a nerve and skin inflammation.
Phytochemicals against shingles
D.1. Quercetin is a member of flavonoids, found in fruits, vegetables, leaves and grains. It is also one of antioxidants with property of protecting our body in fighting against forming of free radicals cause of mutation of cells`DNA.
a. Anti-Inflammatory
According to the study of `Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Quercetin 7-O-β-D-Glucopyranoside from the Leaves of Brasenia schreberi.`by Legault J, Perron T, Mshvildadze V, Girard-Lalancette K, Perron S, Laprise C, Sirois P, Pichette A. (Source from Laboratory for Analysis and Separation of Plant Species (LASEVE), Université du Québec à Chicoutimi , Chicoutimi, Québec, Canada.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that some flavonoids have been reported to possess beneficial effects in cardiovascular and chronic inflammatory diseases associated with overproduction of nitric oxide. Quercetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside possesses anti-inflammatory activity, inhibiting expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and release of nitric oxide by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Quercetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside also inhibited overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 and granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor.

b. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities
According to the study of `Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of leaves, twigs and stem bark of Scutia buxifolia Reissek.`by Boligon AA, Janovik V, Frohlich JK, Spader TB, Forbrig Froeder AL, Alves SH, Athayde ML. (Source from a Phytochemical Research Laboratory, Department of Industrial Pharmacy , Federal University of Santa Maria , Build 26, room 1115 , Santa Maria , CEP 97105-900 , Brazil.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that quercitrin, isoquercitrin and rutin were identified by HPLC and may be partially responsible for the antimicrobial activities observed. This study reports for the first time the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of S. buxifolia leaves, twigs and stem bark.

D.2. Naringenin, a flavanone, belonging to the red, blue, purple pigments of Flavonoids (polyphenols) found predominantly in citrus fruits is considered as one of powerful antioxiant with many health benefits.
1. Antioxidant, radical scavenging and biomolecule activity
In the affirmation of the capacity of flavonoid naringenin and its glycoside naringin in the comparison of theirs antioxidant capacities, radical scavenging and biomolecule activities found that naringenin exhibited higher antioxidant capacity and hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenger efficiency than naringin and both flavanones were equally effective in reducing DNA damage. However, they show no protective effect on oxidation of GSH, according to the study of "Antioxidant properties, radical scavenging activity and biomolecule protection capacity of flavonoid naringenin and its glycoside naringin: a comparative study" by Cavia-Saiz M, Busto MD, Pilar-Izquierdo MC, Ortega N, Perez-Mateos M, Muñiz P.(32) 

2. Anti-inflammatory effects
In the evaluation of the mechanisms of action of the effective compounds. Flavone, the isoflavones daidzein and genistein, the flavonols isorhamnetin, kaempferol and quercetin, the flavanone naringenin, and the anthocyanin pelargonidin amd theirs anti-inflammatory effects found that they inhibited iNOS protein and mRNA expression and also NO production in a dose-dependent manner, according to "Anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids: genistein, kaempferol, quercetin, and daidzein inhibit STAT-1 and NF-kappaB activations, whereas flavone, isorhamnetin, naringenin, and pelargonidin inhibit only NF-kappaB activation along with their inhibitory effect on iNOS expression and NO production in activated macrophages" by Hämäläinen M, Nieminen R, Vuorela P, Heinonen M, Moilanen E.(33)

3. Immunity
In the unvestigation of Naringenin, a flavonoid in grapefruits and citrus fruits and its effec in immune system found that naringenin potently suppressed picryl chloride (PCl)-induced contact hypersensitivity by inhibiting the proliferation and activation of T lymphocytes. In vitro, both of the activated hapten-specific T cells and the T cells stimulated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 showed growth arrest after naringenin treatment, according to "A novel regulatory mechanism of naringenin through inhibition of T lymphocyte function in contact hypersensitivity suppression" by Fang F, Tang Y, Gao Z, Xu Q.(34) 

D.3. Tangeritin, one of the flavones, is found in tangerine and many citrus peels 
1. Antioxidants
In the comparison of hand-pressed juice of polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) and flavanone glycosides (FGs) and the peeled fruit of 'Sainampueng' tangerines ( Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Sainampueng) antioxidant effects found that hand-pressed juice of C. reticulata Blanco cv. Sainampueng serves as a rich source of PMFs, FGs, carotenoids, and antioxidants: 4-5 tangerine fruits ( approximately 80 g of each fruit) giving one glass of 200 mL hand-pressed juice would provide more than 5 mg of nobiletin and tangeretin and 36 mg of hesperidin, narirutin, and didymin, as well as 30 mg of ascorbic acid, >1 mg of provitamin A active beta-cryptoxanthin, and 200 microg of alpha-tocopherol, according to "Polymethoxylated flavones, flavanone glycosides, carotenoids, and antioxidants in different cultivation types of tangerines ( Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Sainampueng) from Northern Thailand" by Stuetz W, Prapamontol T, Hongsibsong S, Biesalski HK.(35)

2. Antimicrobial activity
In the study of antibacterial and antifungal properties of wax and hexane extracts of Citrus spp. peels found that antimicrobial activity especially against M. canis and T. mentagrophytes: 4',5,6,7,8-pentamethoxyflavone (tangeritin) and 3',4',5,6,7,8-hexamethoxyflavone (nobiletin) from C. reticulata; and 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin (also known as escoparone, scoparone or scoparin) from C. limon, according to "Antimicrobial activity of wax and hexane extracts from Citrus spp. peels" by Johann S, Oliveira VL, Pizzolatti MG, Schripsema J, Braz-Filho R, Branco A, Smânia Jr A.(36)

D.4. Gallocatechin, containing catechin is phytochemicals of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in green tea, almonds, black diamond plums, black tea, cocoa beans, Fuji apples, golden delicious apple, etc.
a. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities
In the evaluation of the radioprotective efficacy of green tea polyphenols and the component ingredients against irradiated-induced damage in mice and elucidate the underlying mechanisms, found that Moreover GTP and its bioactive components (catechin, epigallocatechin and epigallocatechin-3-gallate) assisted in decreasing the leukocytopenia seen after whole mice irradiation and significantly reduced the elevated serum inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6). Green tea polyphenols have a potential to be developed as radioprotective agents against irradiated-induced toxicity. Furthermore the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of GTP can be attributed to the interaction of the different components through multiple and synergistic mechanisms, according to "Bioactive components from the tea polyphenols influence on endogenous antioxidant defense system and modulate inflammatory cytokines after total-body irradiation in mice" by Hu Y, Guo DH, Liu P, Cao JJ, Wang YP, Yin J, Zhu Y, Rahman K.(37)

b. Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects
In the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effect of nanocatechin on CBP and plasma concentration of catechins in an animal model, found that the use of ciprofloxacin, catechin, and nanocatechin showed statistically significant decrease in bacterial growth and improvement in prostatic inflammation compared with the control group. The nanocatechin group showed statistically significant decrease in bacterial growth and improvement in prostatic inflammation compared with the catechin group. Plasma concentrations of epicatechin, gallocatechin gallate, and epigallocatechin gallate were significantly higher in the nanocatechin group than those in the catechin group. These results suggest that nanocatechin has better antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects on rat CBP than catechin due to higher absorption into the body, according to "Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of nanocatechin in a chronic bacterial prostatitis rat model" by Yoon BI, Ha US, Sohn DW, Lee SJ, Kim HW, Han CH, Lee CB, Cho YH.(38)

D.5. Gallic acid is a phytochemical in the class of Phenolic acids, found abundantly in tea, mango, strawberries, rhubarb, soy, etc.
a. Cytotoxic and antioxidative activities
In the investigation of the bioactivity guided isolation and characterization of phytoconstituents, indicated the extract showed strong radical scavenging effects against DPPH, nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide (SO) radicals comparable to that of known antioxidants 3-t-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and quercetin in addition to its cytotoxic activities against HEP-2 (human larynx epidermoid carcinoma) and RD (human rhabdomyosarcoma) cell lines based on MTT assay for growth inhibition. The gallic acid equivalent total phenolic content of the plant was found to be 79.94mg/g dry extract. Phenylethanoid glycosides, verbascoside and calceorioside A were isolated from the most active fraction and both compounds showed strong radical scavenging activity against tested radicals and cytotoxicity against HEP-2, RD and MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) cell line, according to "Cytotoxic and antioxidative activities of Plantago lagopus L. and characterization of its bioactive compounds" by Sebnem Harput U, Genc Y, Saracoglu I.(39)

b. Antioxidants
In the evaluation of the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activities of organic fractions from Cystoseira sedoides (Desfontaines) C. Agardh, indicated that the F-CHCl(3) and F-AcOEt fractions showed significant total phenolic content at 55.09 and 61.30 mg gallic-acid equivalent/g dried sample, respectively. Using the DPPH method, the F-CHCl(3) and the F-AcOEt fractions exhibited the strongest radical scavenging activity, with IC(50) 120 µg/mL for F-CHCl(3) and 121 µg/mL for F-AcOEt, which approaches the activity of the powerful antioxidant standard, Trolox (IC(50) = 90 µg/mL), according to "Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activities of organic fractions from the Mediterranean brown seaweed Cystoseira sedoides" by Mhadhebi L, Laroche-Clary A, Robert J, Bouraoui A.(40)

D.6. Lycotene is a phytochemical compound and bright red pigment belonging to group of carotene in the family of carotenoids found mostly in tomatoes and other red fruits and vegetables. It best known for its inverse correlation between consumption of tomatoes and cancer risk. It has been studied by many researches as a potential compound for prevention and treatment for certain cancers, including prostate and liver cancer.
a. Inflammation
According to the study of `Inhibitory mechanism of lycopene on cytokine expression in experimental pancreatitis.`by Kim H. (Source from Department of Food and Nutrition, Brain Korea 21 Project, College of Human Ecology, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea., posted in PubMed, researchers found that in pancreatic acinar cells, which is mediated by the activation of NADPH oxidase. Lycopene functions as a very potent antioxidant to suppress the induction of inflammatory cytokines, in pancreatic acinar cells stimulated with cerulein. In this review, the possible beneficial effect of lycopene on experimental pancreatitis shall be discussed based on its antioxidant activity.

b. Antioxidants
In the study of `Comparison of lycopene and tomato effects on biomarkers of oxidative stress in vitamin E deficient rats` by Delphine Gitenay, Bernard Lyan, Mathieu Rambeau, Andrzej Mazur and Edmond Rock. (Source from European Journal of Nutrition Volume 46, Number 8, 468-475, DOI: 10.1007/s00394-007-0687-2), posted in, researchers found that Our study showed for the first time that tomatoes, containing or not containing lycopene, have a higher potential than lycopene to attenuate and or to reverse oxidative stress-related parameters in a mild oxidative stress context.

D.7. Etc.  
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