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Monday, 25 November 2013

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) - The Diet

Rheumatoid Arthritis
Rheumatoid Arthritis is defined a chronic disorder as a result of inflammation, affecting mostly the flexible (synovial) joints and tissues and organs in the body. The disease affects more women than in men and generally occurs after the ages of 40 and diminishes the quality of life of many elders.
In conventional medicine, there is no known way to prevent rheumatoid arthritis, although progression of the disease usually can be stopped or slowed by early, aggressive treatment. Since  Rheumatoid Arthritis RA is caused by inflammation of flexible (synovial) joints and tissues and organs in the body, diet with high in anti inflammatory and immunity enhancing foods, antioxidants and phytochemicals may provide protection and reduced risk of the disease.
The Diet
1. Organic Soy 
Intake of soy protein can enhance the protective effect against Rheumatoid Arthritis. In the study to evaluate preventive and therapeutic effects of soy protein on collagen-induced arthritis rats, showed that Administration of soy protein significantly suppressed the progression of collagen II-induced arthritis and inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin6, leptin, and adiponectin. Soy protein appeared to be a potent immunomodulatory inhibitor of collagen II-induced arthritis in rats
(32).
2.  Green tea
EGCG in experimental animals and findings related to the EGCG-drug interaction. Although these findings provide scientific evidence of the anti-rheumatic activity of EGCG, further preclinical studies are warranted before phase clinical trials could be initiated with confidence for patients with joint diseases(33).
3. Olive oil
In the study of a case control study of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) 168 cases and 137 controls were included. Patients and controls were interviewed with regard to a variety of socioeconomic, medical and dietary factors, found that applying multiple logistic analysis though (by which several variables were controlled for), only the association with olive oil consumption and lent adherence remained significant. More specifically; an increase in olive oil consumption by two times per week, resulted in a Relative Risk (RR) for development of RA of 0.49, whereas adherence to lent during the 27 weeks per year prescribed by the Orthodox Church, resulted in a RR of 0.33(34).
4. Salmon 
Salmon contains high amount Omega 3 fatty acid of the can decrease the risk of RA. In the review of Arthritis disease – the use of complementary therapies, showed that there is reasonable evidence to support the use of glucosamine, avocado/soybean unsaponifiables and chondroitin in osteoarthritis, and omega-3 fatty acids and gammalinolenic acid in rheumatoid arthritis. However, no current evidence does not equate to lack of effectiveness(35).
5.  Circuit fruits
Circuit fruit contain high amount of Quercetin which can reduce the risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis as a result of anti inflammatory and antioxidant effects
a. Anti-Inflammatory
According to the study of `Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Quercetin 7-O-β-D-Glucopyranoside from the Leaves of Brasenia schreberi.`by Legault J, Perron T, Mshvildadze V, Girard-Lalancette K, Perron S, Laprise C, Sirois P, Pichette A. (Source from Laboratory for Analysis and Separation of Plant Species (LASEVE), Université du Québec à Chicoutimi , Chicoutimi, Québec, Canada.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that some flavonoids have been reported to possess beneficial effects in cardiovascular and chronic inflammatory diseases associated with overproduction of nitric oxide. Quercetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside possesses anti-inflammatory activity, inhibiting expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and release of nitric oxide by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Quercetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside also inhibited overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 and granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor.
b. Free radical scavenger
In a study of `Dietary chromones as antioxidant agents-the structural variable.`by Dias MM, Machado NF, Marques MP. (Source from Research Unit “Molecular Physical Chemistry”, University of Coimbra, Portugal.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that from the eighteen tested compounds, three-fisetin, luteolin and quercetin-are shown to act as effective antiradicals. Consistent structure-activity relationships (SARs) were established regarding the antioxidant role of this type of chromone-based system.
6. Red wine and skin and of grape
Resveratrol found abundantly in red wine and the skin and seed of grape is said to have an anti RA effect. In the study of Effects of resveratrol in inflammatory arthritis, showed that according to control group in the resveratrol group, significantly decreased cartilage destruction was determined by H&E staining (p = 0.04). Loss of matrix proteoglycan content in the cartilage was much lower, as determined by safranin O staining (p = 0.03). We also observed marked synovial inflammation after intra-articular injection to control knees, but not in the resveratrol treated group knees (p = 0.01)(36).
7.  Turmeric
Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae) rhizomes contain two classes of secondary metabolites, curcuminoids and the less well-studied essential oils. Dr. Funk JL and research team at the University of Arizona, indicated that Crude or refined TEO extracts dramatically inhibited joint swelling (90-100% inhibition) in female rats with streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis when extracts were administered via intraperitoneal injection to maximize uniform delivery. However, this anti-arthritic effect was accompanied by significant morbidity and mortality. Oral administration of a 20-fold higher dose TEO was nontoxic, but only mildly joint-protective (20% inhibition). These results do not support the isolated use of TEO for arthritis treatment but, instead, identify potential safety concerns in vertebrates exposed to TEO(37).
8. Ginger 
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) supplements are being promoted for arthritis treatment in western societies on the basis of ginger’s traditional use as an anti-inflammatory in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine. Dr. Funk JL and scientists at the University of Arizona showed that the crude dichloromethane extract, which also contained essential oils and more polar compounds, was more efficacious (when normalized to gingerol content) in preventing both joint inflammation and destruction(38).
9. Etc.
Sources
(32) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21681567
(33) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20447316
(34) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1771399
(35) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20877766
(36) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17115116
(37) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20025215
(38) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19216559