Restrictive lung diseases or restrictive ventilatory defects
Restrictive lung disease is a condition marked most obviously by a reduction in total lung capacity. A restrictive ventilatory defect may be caused by a pulmonary deficit, such as pulmonary fibrosis (abnormally stiff, non-compliant lungs), or by non-pulmonary deficits, including respiratory muscle weakness, paralysis, and deformity or rigidity of the chest wall(1).
1. Dyspnea (shortness of breath)
Patients with obstructive and restrictive ventilatory abnormalities suffer from exercise intolerance and dyspnea. Breathing pattern components (volume, flow, and timing) during incremental exercise may provide further insight in the role played by dynamic hyperinflation in the genesis of dyspnea parameters(2).
Wheezing occurs during breathing, as a result of some parts of the respiratory tree must be narrowed or obstructed due to inflammation of the airways expiration causes of a blockage in the airways or lungs.
3. Chronic coughing
Chronic cought is a insistently repetitive or continuous cough last longer than eight weeks.
According to the study of 10 patients with ulcerative colitis, all of whom were non-smokers, presented with a productive cough. In six, the chest radiograph was normal and cough was the only symptom; three of these patients had a minor obstructive ventilatory defect on testing. Four patients complained
of exertional dyspnoea and had both an abnormal chest radiograph with bilateral pulmonary shadows and a mixed obstructive and restrictive ventilatory defect(3).
4. Coughing up blood
It may be a result due to bleeding of the upper Respiratory tract or lung tumor.
5. Chest pain
Half of patients with respiratory Diseases are experience symptoms of chest pain(4).
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