Pulmonary edema is defined as a condition of fluid accumulation in the air spaces and parenchyma of the lungs of that can lead to difficult of breathing and respiratory failure.
C. In traditional Chinese medicine
1. Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen and Corydalis yanhusuo WT Wang
In the study of incorporating the chemical predictors, target predictors and network construction approaches, an integrated system of TCM has been constructed to systematically uncover the underlying action mechanisms of TCM. From three representative Chinese herbs, i.e., Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen and Corydalis yanhusuo WT Wang which have been widely used in CVD treatment, by combinational use of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) screening and network pharmacology techniques, showed that the result provides new information on the efficiency of the Chinese herbs for the treatment of CVD and also explains one of the basic theories of TCM, i.e., “multiple herbal drugs can treat one disease”. The predicted potential targets were then mapped to target-disease and target-signal pathway connections, which revealed the relationships of the active ingredients with their potential targets, diseases and signal systems. This means that for the first time, the action mechanism of these three important Chinese herbs for the treatment of CVD is uncovered, by generating and identifying both their active ingredients and novel targets specifically related to CVD, which clarifies some of the common conceptions in TCM, and thus provides clues to modernize such specific herbal medicines(72).
2. Wind dispelling and dampness removing herbs
In the study to observe the clinical efficiency and safety of Benazepril and wind dispelling and dampness removing Chinese herbs were singly or combined used in patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD 3), and to provide effective integrative medicine methods for treatment of CKD 3, showed that
for CGN CKD 3 patients, treatment by Benazepril combined with wind dispelling and dampness removing Chinese herbs showed favorable renal protective effects. It delayed the progress of renal failure, significantly improve the overall clinical efficacy. It was an effective treatment method for CGN CKD 3 patients with good patient tolerance and less adverse reactions(73).
3. Cao Gou
Cao Gou also Known as Cardamom. The acrid, warm, aromic herb has been used in TCM to stomach pain, flatulence, belching, indigestion, vomiting, malarial disorders, etc. as it dries Dampness, warms the Middle Burner, etc., by enhancing the functions of spleen and stomach channels.
a. Blood pressure, fibrinolysis and antioxidant
In the investigation of Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton. (Small cardamom) fruit powder and its effects in cardiovascular desieases found that the fruit powder antioxidant significantly (p<0.05) increased by 90% at the end of 3 months and effectively reduces blood pressure, enhances fibrinolysis, according to the study of "Blood pressure lowering, fibrinolysis enhancing and antioxidant activities of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)" by Verma SK, Jain V, Katewa SS.(74).
b. Platelet aggregation and lipid peroxidation
In the study of cardamom extract and it effects in platelet aggregation and lipid peroxidation found that an increase in concentration of cardamom has decreased the MDA formation significantly. Hence, it may be said that aqueous extract of cardamom may have component(s), which protect platelets from aggregation and lipid peroxidation, according to the study of "Cardamom extract as inhibitor of human platelet aggregation" by Suneetha WJ, Krishnakantha TP.(75).
In the observation of and it diuretic and sedative activities effects found that cardamom exhibits gut excitatory and inhibitory effects mediated through cholinergic and Ca++ antagonist mechanisms respectively and lowers BP via combination of both pathways. The diuretic and sedative effects may offer added value in its use in hypertension and epilepsy, according to the study of "Gut modulatory, blood pressure lowering, diuretic and sedative activities of cardamom" by Gilani AH, Jabeen Q, Khan AU, Shah AJ.(76).
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